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  1. mutation
    • a change in the DNA sequence that results in a change in the product protion
    • can be neutral harmful or benificial
  2. base substitution
    single base in the DNA sequence is replaced with a different base
  3. missence mutation
    • base substitution results in amino acid substituion in protien
    • may or may not affect activity of protien
  4. nonsense mutation
    • creates a stop codon in the middle of an mRNA molecute
    • almost always destroys activity of protien
  5. frameshift mutation
    • nucleotide pairs are deleted or inserted into the DNA
    • protien sequence altered significantly
    • produce carcinagens
  6. mutagens
    agents in the enviornment such as chemicals and radiation that directly or indirectly bring about mutations
  7. chemical mutagen
    ex nitrous acid makes base pair change in DNA and alters DNA at random location
  8. nucleoside analog
    • altered base pairs
    • randomly incorporated into DNA instead of normal base
    • replication causes base pair substitutions in later generations
  9. radiation
    • xray /gamma ray ionize atoms and molecules
    • ions combine with bases in dna - errors in replication
    • causes physical breaks in the chromosome
  10. uv light
    • nonionizing cases formation of covalent bonds between bases
    • creates thymine dimers - may cause death to cell
  11. photolyases
    light repair enzymes use visible light to seperate dimer to two thimines
  12. repair uv light
    • enzyme cut and remove damaged DNA
    • DNA polymerase synthesizes Dna to fill gap
    • DNA ligase seals gap by joining old and new DNA
  13. frequency of mutation
    • rate at which mutation will occur
    • 1/million rate. - provides genetic diversity
    • rate can change depending on population cell has been exposed to.
  14. Restriction enzyme
    • DNA cutting enzymes that exsist in many bacteria
    • recognize and cuts particular sequence of nucleotide bases in DNA 4,6,8 base sites
    • palindrome
  15. Linn and Abner
    • discovered some strains of bacteria were able to resist bacteriaphage
    • infection by infecting DNA
    • different bacteria produce different enzymes
  16. blunt ends
    cut both strands of DNA in the same place
  17. sticky ends
    cut two strands that are not directly opposite from each other (stagger ends)
  18. restriction enzyme steps
    • enzyme cutes DNA making skicky ends
    • DNA from another pasmid joins to sticky ends through base pairing
    • DNA ligase fuses them together making a molecule of recombinant DNA
  19. plasmids
    • carry on antibiotic resistance markers
    • restriction sites to insert DNA
    • allow plasmids to reproduce in several organisms
  20. polymerase chain reaction
    • small samples of DNA can be doubled
    • heat/cold
  21. polymerase chain reaction steps
    • separate targe DNA with heat
    • need primer deoxynucleotides and DNA polymerase
    • polymerase synthesizes strands two new forms of target DNA are formed
    • repeate and DNA strands are doubled
  22. primer
    • help start the reaction
    • complementary to ends of target DNA
  23. agarose gel electrophoresis
    • separate DNA fragments made with restriction enzymes
    • used to sequence DNA
  24. Cohen and Boyer
    • cut plasmid DNA and target dna with same restriction enzyme
    • mix DNA allowing sticky ends to match up
    • select DNA clone having target gene
Card Set:
2012-04-29 05:36:41

test 3
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