A&P Urinary System

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A&P Urinary System
2012-04-29 21:52:45
Urinary System

A&P Urinary System
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  1. Urinary System

    • Regulation of Composition of Body Fluids (water balance, electrolyte balance, and acid-base balance)
    • Waste Removal (from metabolism, phagocytosis, and foreign chemicals/drugs/food additives)
    • Endocrine Function (erythropoietin which stimulates red blood cell production)
    • Enzyme Production (renin which helps regulate blood pressure and kidney function)
    • Gluconeogenesis (during prolonged fasting)
  2. Urinary Organs
    • Kidneys – major excretory organs of body; forms urine (water and solutes filtered from blood)
    • Ureters – transport urine to storage
    • Urinary Bladder – temporarily stores urine
    • Urethra – carries urine to outside of body
  3. Kidneys – Location
    Retroperitoneal in superior lumbar region
  4. Kidneys – External Anatomy
    • Bean-shaped
    • Renal Hilus: vertical cleft where blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves enter renal sinus Supporting tissue
    • a. Renal capsule – inner fibrous and transparent; protects kidney against infection and holds organ together
    • b. Adipose capsule – middle fatty mass; attaches kidneys to posterior wall and cushions it
    • c. Renal fascia - outer layer of dense fibrous connective tissue; anchors kidney and adrenal gland to surrounding structures
  5. Kidneys – Internal Anatomy
    • Regions
    • a. Renal cortex (outer dark region with extends called renal columns)
    • b. Renal medulla (inner light region containing renal pyramids)
    • c. Renal pelvis (flat funnel shaped tube continuous with ureter leaving hilus)
  6. Path of urine drainage
    • Papillary duct of renal pyramid
    • Minor calyx
    • Major calyx
    • Renal pelvis
    • Ureter
    • Bladder
  7. Blood and nerve supply
    • a. Urine is a filtrate of blood
    • b. Largely sympathetic nerves from renal plexus which are vasomotor fibers which regulate renal blood flow
  8. Nephron
    Structural and functional unit of kidneys
  9. Nephron Parts
    Renal Corpuscle = glomerulus (capillary tuft) and glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

    Renal Tubule = proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule (DCT)
  10. Nephron Filtrate
    Enters collecting ducts and then drains into:

    • Papillary duct of renal pyramid
    • Minor calyx
    • Major calyx
    • Renal pelvis
    • Ureter
    • Bladder
  11. Types of Nephrons (2)
    • Cortical Nephrons
    • Juxtamedullary Nephrons
  12. Cortical Nephrons
    85%, parts almost entirely in renal corex
  13. Juxtamedullary Nephron
    15%, with long loops of Henle that invad the medulla; important for forming concentrated urine