Microbiology

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Author:
blakers98
ID:
150905
Filename:
Microbiology
Updated:
2012-12-04 17:28:30
Tags:
micro respiration lecture
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Description:
respiration lecture
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  1. Tuberculosis (TB)
    (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)

    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= acid fast bacillus, mycolic acid
    • symptoms= bloody sputum: chronic pneumonia in 85%
    • -cough, chest pain, fatigue, fever, anorexia, chills, night sweats
    • pathogens= intracellular to granulomas (tubercles) to calcification seen on x-ray
    • diagnosis= AFB, x-ray, PCR-gene probe, tuberculin skin test with PPD (purified protein derivative), delayed hypersensitivity
    • treatment= isoniazid + 3 antibiotics, Vaccine is BCG= live attenuated
    • etiology= communicable by sneezing/coughing
  2. Influenza
    (Viral pneumonia)
    Influenza Virus A (B,C)

    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= ssRNA (-) enveloped
    • symptoms= URT and LRT symptoms, fever, malaise, muscle soreness
    • pathogens= hemagglutinin (H) binds to receptor and fuses withe cell membrane and neuraminidase (N) removes receptor protein & allows dispersion during budding from cell
    • diagnosis= epidemiologic
    • ELISA for H and N
    • Treatment= symptomatic
    • Zanamivir= a nasal spray neuramindase inhibitor, blocks viral adherence
    • Oseltamivir= taken orally
    • **If taken within 30 hrs of onset of symptoms, shortens duration of illness.
  3. Influenza continued
    treatment= Amatadine or rimantadine for A

    -Influenza vaccine for high risk patients and health care workers

    • -No universal vaccine due to 8 segment shift.
    • -Gullain-Barre in 1976 to HSWN1

    • etiology= IVA is epidemic, H1N1, IVB is endemic.
    • aspirin is contraindicated---Reye's syndrome

    --Antigenic drift and Antigenic shift of H and N
  4. Pneumocystosis (PCP)
    (pneumocystis jirovecii)

    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= obligate fungal lung flora
    • symptoms= pneumonia to asphyxia
    • pathogens= immunocompromised patients
    • diagnosis= stain BAL (broncoalveloar lavage) fluid with calcofluor white
    • treatment= Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
    • etiology= inhalation normal flora 80% of AIDS patients
  5. Histoplamosis (fungal pneumonia)
    (Histoplasma capsulatum)

    causes?
    symptoms?
    pathogens?
    diagnosis?
    treatment?
    etiology?
    • causes= dimorphic fungus
    • symptoms= differentiate from TB
    • pathogens= intracellular
    • diagnosis= x-ray, histoplamin skin test, sputum culture, ID
    • treatment= Itraconazole
    • etiology= not contagious; bird or bats= inhalation; geographic

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