aabio test 1review 4

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tjtolman
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150906
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aabio test 1review 4
Updated:
2012-04-29 12:48:48
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bio
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bio
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  1. Cell theory
    1850's - virchow,schwann,schveiden = concepts of cell theory.
  2. concepts of cell theory:
    • all living things are made of cells
    • cells smallest living unit
    • come from other cells
    • chemical reactions
    • heredity material
  3. cork cells in oak bark:
    robert hooke 1665
  4. van leeuwenhoek:
    early 1600's
  5. Prokaryotes:
    • bacteria
    • genetic info not in nucleus (in nucleoid)
    • simple, no membrane bound organelles
    • *person living in log cabin w/ one room)
  6. Eukaryotes:
    • multicellular organisms
    • genetic info in nucleus
    • chromosomes
    • DNA and protein
    • membrane bound organelles
  7. Microscopes:
    • resolve objects (resolution)
    • ability to tell apart 2 objects that are close together
    • Human eye: .1mm
  8. light microscope:
    • .2um
    • stain to be more visible
  9. electron microscope
    • use tv screens to view
    • use magnets to control electrons
    • 1)transmission EM's .2nm
    • 2)scanning EM's
  10. plasma membrane:
    • cell membrane
    • phospholipids and proteins
  11. cytoplasm
    material inside, minus nucleus
  12. Location of genetic info:
    • euk: nucleus
    • pro: nucleoid
  13. ribosomes:
    "protein factories"
  14. prokaryotic cell:
    • fig 4.3
  15. Eukaryotes:
  16. Nucleus:
    • genetic info
    • cell activites controlled
  17. Nuclear pore:
    • in and out of nucleus
    • -chromosomes (protein and dna = chromatin)
  18. Nucleolus
    • RNA synthesis
    • wound up- nucleousomes
  19. ER:
    • endoplasmic reticulum
    • -membranes (tubes.sac)
    • surface to hold ribosomes
    • make lipids and carbohydrates
    • divide up cytoplasm into chambers
    • channeling chemicals
  20. Kinds of ER:
    • Rough: ribosomes on surface
    • Smooth: no ribosomes (makes lipids/carbs)
  21. Ribosomes:
    • protein factories - "tiny structures"
    • RNA and protein
    • Location: on rough ER or free in cytoplasm
  22. Golgi body:
    • package, store, send off molecules *UPS store
    • -incoming transport comes from ER
    • Transport vesicle--->
    • Chemically modified---> sugar + protein = clyco protein
    • Secretory vesicle----<
  23. Glycoproteins:
    cell identity (self or non self)
  24. Glycolipids:
    Tissue identity
  25. Cell junctions: "communication or attachment"
    • Tight -
    • desmosomes-
    • plasmodesmata - in plants (communication btwn cells)
    • gap junction - communication
  26. Membrane structure:
    • lipids 40-50% "phospholipids" tails non polar and face center (polar)
    • proteins 50-60%
    • Glycolipids + glycoproteins = glycocalyic
  27. Fluid mosaic model:
    • proteins / lipids move freely
    • proteins float on or in lipid bilayer
  28. Membrane proteins / function
    • Function:
    • transport
    • enzymes
    • cell surface reception of message
    • indentity molecules
    • cell adhesion
    • attach to cytoplasm
  29. Membrane transport: Diffusion
    • movement of molecules froma an area of higher concentration to an area of lower.
    • Direct diffusion: 02 from blood to lungs, C02 to lungs.
  30. Membrane transport: osmosis
    • diffusion of H20 molecules through a differentially permeable membrane.
    • -little pores= channels "aqua porins" how H20 moves in
  31. Osmotyl concentration
    All solutes
  32. isotonic / hypertonic / hypotonic
    • iso - equal
    • hyper - more than
    • hypo - less than
  33. Facilitated diffusion:
    • carrier molecule - high to low concentration
    • Sugar (glucose) into red blood cells, no energy used
  34. Active transport
    • Uses energy (ATP)
    • uses carrier - low to high concentration
    • Coupled transport - secondary
  35. Na-K-pump
    sodium is pumped out and potassium pumped in
  36. bulk movement:
    • Edocytosis: envelopes food and particles in liquids
    • a) phagocytosis - to eat
    • b) pinocytosis - to drink
    • c) receptor-mediated endocytosis
    • -molecules in and bind to receptors in plasma membrane
    • Exocytosis: discharge of material from cell

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