- Public opinion is not fixed because of the varying saliency of issues.
- Public Opinion as an opportunity: Bill Clinton's administration, the minimum wage bill, and the use of amendments on Republican bills after the Republicans suffered a decrease in public opinion from government shutdowns. Politicians can affect saliency
Constraint: Welfare reform: Clinton kept vetoing healthcare bills because of differences in details, but ultimately, he needed to pass it due to the strong public opinion sentiment that there needs to be some sort of reform.
Ballot feed: Perceptions of what the public wants shapes strategies--appropriations bill approval under clinton. Republicans thought that Clinton would cave to their demands because he was concerned about reelection and public opinion, precedent under Bush's presidency showed that blame fell on president for government shutdowns, and the public would side with the republicans on the substantive parts of the debate