MOD-1: Nomenclature

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MOD-1: Nomenclature
2012-04-29 15:46:39
mechanisms disease

Nomenclature of Tumors
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  1. Def: neoplasm
    New Growth
  2. Def: benign
    the growth remains localized, does not spread to other sites, and can be surgically removed relatively easily
  3. Def: malignant
    the lesion can invade and destroy adjacent structures and metastasize (may cause death).
  4. Def: Adenoma
    a benign epithelial neoplasm derived from glands, although they may or may not form glandular structures.
  5. Def: Teratoma
    • growth that contains recognizable mature or immature cells or tissues representative of more than one germ cell layer (sometimes all three).
    • Ex: cystic teratoma of the ovary - may contain hair, sebaceous material, and a tooth-like structure
  6. Def: pleomorphic adenoma
    Growths that contain tissue believed to arise from a single clone, though which may give rise to bone scattered throughout, etc.
  7. Why does the fact that the word "cancer" derived from the Latin word for "crab" make sense?
    They adhere to any part that they seize on in an obstinate manner, similar to a crab.
  8. All tumors (benign and malignant) have two basic components:
    • 1) clonal neoplastic cells that constitute their parenchyma
    • 2) reactive stroma made up of connective tissue, bvs, and variable numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes
  9. Growth and evolution of neoplastic cells is critically dependent on.....
    their stroma
  10. Def: desmoplasia
    an abundant collagenous stroma that makes the tumor feel harder
  11. Def: papillomas
    Benign epithelial neopplasms that produce microscopically or macroscopically visible finger-like or warty projections from the epithelial surfaces.
  12. Def: cystadenomas
    benign neoplasms that form large cystic masses (as in the ovary)
  13. Def: polyp
    A neoplasm (benign or malignant) that produces a macroscopicallly visible projection above a mucosal surface and projects, for example, into the gastric or colonic lumen.
  14. Malignant tumors arising in ______ are usually called _____ because......
    • Mesenchymal tissue
    • Sarcomas
    • Because they have little connective tissue stroma and are fleshy.
  15. Malignant neoplasms of epithelial cell origin are called....
  16. Teratomas originate from....
    • topipotential cells, such as those normally present in the testes and ovaries.
    • These cells have the capacity to differentiate into any of the cell types found in the adult body.
  17. Malignant tumors that sound bening (have the -oma suffix)
    • Mesothelioma
    • Invasive meningioma
    • Lymphoma
    • (all the carcinomas have this suffix - are tumors of epithelial origin)
  18. Def: parenchymal cells
    the functional cells of organs in the body
  19. Def: anaplasia
    • " to form backwards" - implies a reveral of differentiation to a more primitive level
    • Pleomorphism, abnormal nuclear morphology (hyperchromatic), loss of polarity, and increased mitosis may be associated with anaplasia
  20. Malignant neoplasms that are composed of poorly differentiated cells are said to be....
  21. Lack of differentiation or anaplasia is considered a hallmark of.....
  22. Def: pleomorphism
    cells and nuclei display variation in shape and size
  23. Def: leiomyoma and leiomysosarcoma
    Benign and malignant tumors of smooth muscle origin
  24. Def: carcinoma
    Tumors of epithelial origin
  25. How many cell population doublings are requried to create the smallest detectable mass (1gm)? How many additional doublings are required for the mass to enlarge to 1kg, which is usually the max size compatible with life?
    • 30 doublings
    • 10 additional doublings
  26. The rate of growth of a tumor is determined by:
    • 1) the doubling time of tumor cells
    • 2) the fraction of tumor cells that are in the replicative pool
    • 3) the rate at which cells are shed or die
  27. Def: rhabdomyoma and rhabdomyosarcoma
    Benign and malignant neoplasms of striated muscle origin
  28. Benign or malignant?