Patho lecture 3

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Patho lecture 3
2012-04-29 15:47:01

Exam 2 lecture 3 questions
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  1. Name two types of Hematologic Neoplasms??
    • Myeloid Neoplasms
    • Lymphoid Neoplasms
  2. What is the suspected Cause of Hematologic Neoplasms??
    cause is unknown

    suspected causes are viruses, radiation, carcinogens
  3. What is the most common treatement for Neoplasms?
  4. What can be some complications of treatment (chemotherapy) in Neoplasms??
    • Anemia
    • Infection and bleeding
    • Hair loss
  5. What type of cancer is Leukiemia?
    Lymphoid type cancer in the blood
  6. What type of cancer is Lymphoma??
    lymphoma type cancer in tissue
  7. What is the common cause of death in immunocomprimised leukemia?
  8. Why do Leukemic pts have a lot of pain in the bones and joints??
    B/c there leukemic cells are infiltrating in the joint capsules
  9. What do Leukemic pts experience at Night?
    Night sweats to the extreme !! Soaking
  10. Leukemic pts have abdominal fullness due to What??

    • spleen can rupture if palpated to hard
    • palpate under supervision
  11. Acute Leukemia affacts who??
    All ages
  12. In Acute Leukemia cells are ...
    dividing in large numbers
  13. In Acute Leukemia the clinical onset is
  14. Acute Lekemia has anemia that is

    Can be untreated for wks to months
  15. In Chronic Leukemia there is what kind of mitotic build up??
    Slow and Insidious (sneaks up on you)
  16. Chronic Leukemia has anemia that is

    untreated for months to yrs b/c asymptomatic
  17. What are the two types of Myeloid Neoplasms??
    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML)

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)
  18. Which Myeloid Neoplasm carries the philadelphia chromosome??
    Chronic Myeloid Neoplasm
  19. What cells are involved in CML??
    neutrophils and macrophages
  20. CML exhibits a majority of what cell and carries what chromosome??
    Majority exhibits malignant granulocytes that carry philadelphia chromosome
  21. The Philly Chromosome is a
    gene mutation in gene translocation
  22. How does CML respond to Chemotherapy
  23. CML is seen mostly in
    Adults and is insidious
  24. AML presents itself at what year of life
    64 yrs
  25. Why is there bone pain in AML
    b/c marrow is being invaded
  26. Why is there anemia in AML and what is that pt at risk for??
    b/c RBCs get pushed and crowded out and depleted leading to increased susceptibility to infection
  27. What are the Different kinds of Lymphoid Neoplasms??
    • Chronic Lymphoid Leukemia (CLL)
    • Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma (ALL)
    • Hairy Cell Leukemia
    • Plasma Cell Myeloma (multiple myeloma)
  28. Leukemia are what ??
  29. What happens in Chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL)??
    Malignant B-cells become plasma cells making antibodies
  30. What signs and symptoms are shown in Chronic lymphoid leukemia??
    Often asymptomatic
  31. what is Chronic lymphoid leukemia treated with ??
    Chemotherapy and stem cell replacement
  32. What cells are present in Lymphoid Neoplasms??
    NK Cell Leukemia / Lymphoma

    B cell Leukemia / Lymphoma / Myeloma

    T cell Leukemia / Lymphoma
  33. What cells are present in Myeloid Neoplasms??
    Neutrophils / Granulocytic Leukemia

    Monocyte / Monocytic Leukemia

    Red Blood Cells / Polycythemia Vera or Erythroid Leukemia

    Megakarocyte cells / Megakarocytic Leukemia
  34. What happens to WBCs in CLL
    increased in WBC
  35. In CLL thrombocytopenia is what
  36. In ALL thrombocytopenia is what ??
    mild to severe
  37. In ALL cell divide how??
    cells divide very rapidly in large numbers
  38. Why does CLL have mild Anemia??
    b/c your not slowing down erythropoesis
  39. What is the peak age for ALL
    primarily in children around 3-7 yrs

    second leading cause of death in children
  40. Why does ALL present with bone pain and infection
    transformation of blasts in bone marrow
  41. What is a rare and chronic type of lymphoin neoplams??
    Hairy cell leukemia
  42. What is the primary cell in Hairy cell Leukemia
    primarily B cells with cilia looking like hair
  43. At what age does Hairy Cell Leukemia present itself??
    around 35 yrs and more common in men
  44. What is Plasma Cell Myeloma (Multiple Myeloma)
    Malignant disorder in mature plasma cells
  45. Plasma Cell Myeloma mostly occurs in who??
    Adult men
  46. Where does Plasma Cell Myeloma often go to
    Often goes to the Spine and Flat bones of head (calveria)
  47. What happens when Plasma Cell Myeloma goes into the spine or flat bones of the head??
    When the cells invade it causes a lytic reaction ---> breakdown ----> decreased minerals ---> holes
  48. The lytic reaction in Plasma Cell Myeloma triggers what and are more prone for what ??
    The reaction triggers osteoplastic reaction and are prone to pathologic fractures
  49. The osteoplactic reaction in Plasma Cell Myeloma is what to a disease
    it is secondary to a disease
  50. How does a pathologic fracture happen
    There is no trauma involved. a sneeze can cause the fracture
  51. In Plasma Cell Myeloma what do the malignant plasma cells secrete??
    The plasma cells secrete antibodies called Bence-Jones protiens
  52. What are Bence- Jones proteins are what kind of antibody??
    monoclonal antibodies
  53. Where can Bence-Jones proteins be detected in ??
    in the blood or urine can aid in diagnosis.
  54. What are the two kinds of Lymphoma??
    Hodgkin Disease

    Non-Hodgkin Disease
  55. What is Hodgkin Disease
    A malignant disorder in the lymph nodes
  56. What characterizes Hodgkin Disease??
    Characterized by presence of Reed-Sternberg cells
  57. What cells are involved in Non-Hodgkin Disease??
    B-cell, T-cell, and NK-cell Lymphomas
  58. What Cell is not present in Non-Hodgkin Disease??
    No Reed-Sternberg cells
  59. Hodgkins disorder of the lymph nodes typically ...
    stay in the nodes
  60. Non-Hodgkins lymphoma is very
    Unpredictable in its spread and is often disseminated at diagnosis.
  61. HIV infects what cells
    Infects Helper T cells (CD4+ Lymphocytes)
  62. The loss of Helper T cells causes what??
  63. HIV The viruse has found to be present but not transmitted in what ??
    • saliva and tears,
    • amnitoic fluid,
    • feces and aerisol,
    • urine,
    • cerebral spinal fluid
  64. HIV types 1 and 2 are
    retroviruses that primarily infect CD4+ lymphocytes and macrophages
  65. HIV is acquired primarily through what?
    • sexual transmission via semen and vaginal and cervical secretions;
    • through parenteral transmission via blood,
    • bloodproducts,
    • contaminated needles/syringes;
    • through perinatal transmission from an infected mother to her infant antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum
    • via breast milk.
  66. Who are at greatest risk of HIV infection include
    • homosexual and bisexual men,
    • IVDs who share needles or syringes,
    • sexual partners of those in high-risk groups,
    • infants born to infected mothers.
  67. Who is at the Highest risk for HIV??
    Health Care workers
  68. After significant accidental exposure to HIV-infected blood or body fluids, it is recommended that health care workers take what???
    • postexposure antiretroviral medication as soon as
    • possible after exposure and as needed for 4 weeks after exposure
  69. HIV viruse consists of a core that contains what??
    • RNA,
    • proteins,
    • enzymes
    • which is protected by a spherical lipid bilayer viral
    • envelope
  70. HIV is attracted to markers on surface of what cell??
    CD4+ cells
  71. CD4+ cells hook up with what other cell
    T helper cells
  72. What cell gathers up the HIV virus and sends it to the Helper T cell??
    The Dendritic cell
  73. HIV infection leads to a decline in what cell
    CD4+ cell
  74. What is the latency period of HIV infection
    the establishment of the chronic infection

    there is partial control and viral replication slows down

    Latency period can last years to decades
  75. You are considered to have aid when you CD4+ count is what ??
    When CD4+ count is less than 200/ul
  76. What is the seroconversion phase of the HIV infection??
    Host begins to manufacture antibodies against the viral protein

    formation of anti-HIV antibodies
  77. Viral Budding may cause excessive loss of what ??
    excessive loss of cell membrane
  78. Flulike symptoms and the formation of anti-HIV antibodies (seroconversion) characterize the early stage of what??
    Viral Seeding
  79. What body systems are affected by HIV
    All body systems
  80. Early HIV infection is characterized by
    fever, chills, headaches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, weakness, arthralgia, sore throat, stiff neck, photophobia, irritability, and rash.
  81. The most significant systemic symptom of HIV is
    Malnutrition or wasting,

    due to a combination of factors, including an elevated metabolic rate, chronic inflammation, malabsorption, anorexia, and the effect of multiple opportunistic insults.
  82. Management of HIV and AIDS includes the use of
    antiretroviral medications, including NRTIs, NNRTIs, and PIs.