What part of the eye is the rate limiting step of drug absorption?
What part of the eye maintains normal intraocular pressure?
Do lighter or darker irides have more drug absorption?
What part of the eye produces the aqueous humor?
If a patient is complaining about floating spots, what part of the eye is being affected and what should you do?
Exclusions for self treatment of the eye?
sensitivity to light
blunt trauma to eye
chemical exposure to eye
sun or heat exposure
blurred vision not caused by ointment
sensitivity to light
more than 72 hours
What is most common disorder affecting the anterior eye?
What drugs can cause dry eye?
What are the symptoms of dry eye?
white or mildly red eye
sandy, gritty feel
What eye condition is linked to a T-cell mediated inflammatory process or abnormalities in the tear layer?
How do we primarily treat dry eye?
artificial tears (ocular lubricants)
What are some non-pharmalogic txts for dry eye?
avoid heaters, fans, or dry, dusty places
When would you recommend GenTeal or Tears Again (contain HPMC and CMC)?
for dry eye
What is GenTeal?
a gel for dry eye txt
What are the common vehicles found in artificial tears?
PVA (polyvinyl alcohol)
What are the two types of ophthalmic lubricants?
PVAs and povidone
What is the MOA of the cellulose ether lubricants?
stabilizes tear film
slows tear evaporation
increases viscosity (increases bioavailability of drug)
What is the MOA of PVA and povidone lubricants?
enhance stability of tear film
form hydrophilic layer on corneal surface (mucomimetic so provides mucin)
This is a special formulation that supplements the lipid component in tears, is long-acting, and can be given in addition to artificial tears?
Refresh Eye Drops
Which special formulation lubricant contains a lipid restorative layer?
Which special formulation lubricant helps protect the corneal epithelium through an osmotic effect?
This special formulation contains hydroxypropyl guar and binds to hydrophobic corneal surface and forms glycocalyx . It creates an ocular shield for epithelial repair and is a gelling and polymer system?
When would you recommend preservative free eye drops?
when they have severe dry eye and are dosing every hour
What are the dosing schedules for mild, moderate and severe dry eye?
mild: 1-2 times daily
moderate: 3-4 times daily
severe: every hour
How long should you let drops sit in your eye before adding more?
If your patient needs ointment and drops, what do you tell them?
Tell them to place drops 10 minutes before ointment
What is the MOA of eye ointments?
enhance retention time in the eye
increase tear film integrity
When should we tell patients is the best time to use eye ointment?
What are the 3 ingredients in eye ointments?
How do we dose eye ointments?
BID or PRN
What does the combo of mineral oil, lanolin and white petrolatum in eye ointments allow for?
allows water and water-soluble drugs to be delivered
How much ointment should you place on the lower eyelid?
1/4 to 1/2 inch
What is an advantage of preservative free eye ointment?
What should you counsel a patient about if they are going to use a preser-free eye ointment?
don't contaminate it
watch expiration date
What strengths of NaCl eye products are considered to be isotonic?
What can we tell patients when one dry eye txt fails?
try a different one with a different polymer or preservative in it
use more drops
add ointment at night
then refer if alse else fails
If you get allergic conjuctivitis, is it ok to wear your contacts?
What is the hallmark symptom of allergic conjunctivitis?
What are some non-pharm txts for allergic conjunctivitis?
use air conditioning
new air filters
keep windows closed
watch pollen counts
use a cold compress 3-4 x day
similasan eye drops #2 (not proven though)
When do you refer with allergic conjunctivitis?
if symptoms are not better after 72 hours
What is the first line txt for allergic conjunctivitis?
What is the second line txt for allergic conjunctivitis?