Management

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Anonymous
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15095
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Management
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2010-04-18 18:42:50
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exam 4
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  1. organzing
    arranging and structuring work to accomplish an organizations goal
  2. organizational structure
    the formal arrangement of jobs with in an organization
  3. organizational chart
    the visual representation of an organizations structure
  4. organizational design
    creating or changing an organizxations structure
  5. work specialization
    dividing work activities into separate job tasks
  6. departmentalization
    the basis on which jobs are grouped together
  7. cross funtional teams
    work teams compossed of individuals from various functional specialities
  8. chain of command
    the line of authority extending from upper organizational levels to the lowest level, which clarifies who reports to whom
  9. authority
    the rights inherent ina managerial possition to tell people what to do and to expect them to do it
  10. resposnability
    the obligation or expectation to perfom any assigned duties
  11. untiy of command
    the managment principle that each person should report to only one manager
  12. span of control
    the number of employees a manager can efficiently and effectively manage
  13. centralization
    the degree to which decision making is concentrated at the upper levels of the organization
  14. decentralization
    the degree to which lower-level emplyees provide input or actually make decisions
  15. employee empowerment
    giving employees more authority to make decisions
  16. formalization
    how standerized an organizations jobs are and the extent to which employee behavior is guided by rules and procedures
  17. mechanistic organization
    an organizational design that is rigid and tighly controlled
  18. organic organization
    an organizationla design that is highly adaptive and flexible
  19. unity production
    the production of items in units or small bathches
  20. mass production
    the production of items in large batches
  21. process production
    the production of items in continuous process
  22. simple sturcture
    an organizational design with low departmentalization, wide span of control, centralized authority, and little formalization
  23. functional structure
    an organizational design that groups together similar or related occupational specialities
  24. divisional strucutre
    an organizational structure made up of separate, semiautonomous units or division
  25. team structure
    an organizational structure in which the entiere organization is made up of work groups or teams
  26. matrix structure
    an organizational structure that assigns specialitists from different functional departments to work on one or more projects
  27. project structure
    an organizational structure in which employees continuously work on projects
  28. boundryless organization
    an organization whose design is not defiened by or limited to horizontal, vertical, and externla boundries imposed by predefined structure
  29. virtual organization
    an organization that consists of a small core of full time employees and outside specialists temporarily hired as needed to work on projects
  30. network organization
    an organization that uses its own employees to do some work activities and networks of outside suppliers to provide other needed product components or work processes
  31. learning organization
    an organization that has the capacity to continuously learn, adapt, and change
  32. high-performance work practices
    work practices that lead to both high individual performance and high organizational perfomance
  33. labor union
    an organization that represents workers and seeks to protect their intrests through collective barganing
  34. affirmative action
    organizational programs the enhance the status of memebers of protected groups
  35. human resource planing
    a method of planning to ensure that the organization has the right number and kinds of capable peole tin the right places at the right time
  36. job analysis
    an assesment the defines the jobs and behaviors necessary to perform them
  37. job description
    a written statement that describes the job
  38. job specification
    a written statement of the minimun qualifications that a person must posses to perfome the job successfully
  39. recruitment
    locating, identifying, and attracting caplabe applicants
  40. decruitment
    reducing an organizations workforce
  41. selection
    screening job applicants to ensure that the most appropriate candidates are hired
  42. realistic job preview (RJP)
    a preview of a job that provides both positive and negative informationa bout the job and the company
  43. orientation
    education that introduces a new emplyee to his or her job and organization
  44. perfomance managment system
    a system that estblishes perfomance standertds that are usedto evaluate employee perfomance
  45. skill-bassed pay
    a pay system that reward employees for their job skills they demonstrate
  46. variable pay
    a pay system in which an individual's compensation is contigent on perfomance
  47. sexual harassment
    any unwanted action or activity of a sexual nature that explicity or implicity affects an individuals emplyeement, perfomance, or work enviornment
  48. family-friendly benefits
    benefits that accomodate employees need for work-life balance
  49. communication
    the transfer and understanding of a meaning
  50. interpersonal communication
    communication between two or more people
  51. organizational communication
    all patterns, networks, and systmes of communication within an organization
  52. message
    a purpose to be conveyed
  53. encoding
    converting a message into sysmbols
  54. channel
    the medium along which a message travels
  55. decoding
    retranslating a senders message
  56. interpersonal communication process
    the 7 elements involved in transfering meaning from one person to an other
  57. nosie
    any disturbances that interfere with the transmission, receiot, or feedback of a message
  58. nonverbal communication
    communication transmited with out words
  59. body language
    gestures, facial configuration, and other body movements that convey meaning
  60. verbal information
    an emphasis given to words or phrases that conveys meaning
  61. filtering
    the deliberate manipulation to make it appear more favorable to the reciever
  62. information overload
    a situation in which information exceeds a person's processing capacity
  63. jargon
    specialized terminology or technical languge that memebrs or the group use to communicate among themselves
  64. active listening
    listening for full meaning without making premature judgment or interpretation
  65. formal communication
    communication that takes place with in prescribed organizational work arrangement
  66. informal communication
    communication that is not defined by an organization's structural hierchy
  67. downward communication
    from mamangers to employees
  68. upward communication
    from employees to managers
  69. lateral communication
    emplyees on the same organizational level
  70. diagonal
    communication that cuts across work areas and organizational levels
  71. communication networks
    the variety of pattern of vertical and horizontal flow of organizational communication
  72. grapevine
    the infomal organizational communication network
  73. communities of practice
    groups of people who share a concern, a set o problems, or passion about a topic and who depend their knowledge and experties in that ares by interacting on an ongoing basis
  74. organizational change
    any alteration of people, structure or technology in an organization
  75. change agent
    some who acts as a catalyst and assumes the responsability for managing the change process
  76. organizational development (OD)
    change method that focuses on people and the nature and quality of interpersonal work relationships
  77. stress
    the advers reaction people have to excessive pressure placed on them from extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportuniess
  78. creativity
    the abity to combine ideas in a unque way or to make unsusual assosiations betwee ideas
  79. innovation
    the process of turning creative ideas into useful products or work methods
  80. idea champion
    an individual who actively and enthusiastically supports new ideas, builds support overcomes resistance, and ensures that innovations are implemented
  81. enviornmental scaning
    the screening of large amounts of information to anticipate and interpret changes in the enviornment
  82. competitor intelligence
    an inviornmental scanning activity by which organizations gather informations about competitors
  83. forecasts
    predictions of outcome
  84. quantitative forcasting
    forcasting that applies a set of mathematical rules to a series of past data to predic outcomes
  85. qualitive forcasting
    forcasting that uses the judgment and opinions of knowledgeable individuals to predict outcomes
  86. benchmarking
    the serch for the best practices among competitors or noncompetitors that lead their superior performance
  87. resources
    the assets of an organization, including financial, physical, human, intangable, and structural asstets
  88. budget
    a numerical plan for allocating resources to specific activites
  89. scheduling
    detailing what activities have to be done, the order in which they are to be completed, who is to do each, and when are they to be completed
  90. gannt chart
    a scheduling chart developed by Henry Gannt that shows actual and planned output over a period of time
  91. load chart
    a modified Gannt chart that scheduels capacity by entire departments or specific resources
  92. PERT chart
    a flowchart diagram showing the sequence of activites needed to complete a project and the time or cost assosiated with each
  93. events
    end points that presents the completion of major activities in a PERT network
  94. activites
    the time or resources needed to progress from one event to another in a PERT network
  95. slack time
    the amount of time an individual activity can be delayed woth out delaying the whole project
  96. critical path
    the longest sequence of activites in a PERT network
  97. break-even analysis
    the technique for identifying the point at which total revenue is just sufficient to cover total cost
  98. linear programming
    a mathematical technique that solves resource allocation problem
  99. project
    a one time only set of activites that has defenite begginign and enpoint in time
  100. project managment
    the task of getting a project's activities done on time, with in a budget, and according to specifications
  101. scenario
    a consistent view of what the future is likely to be

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