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2012-04-29 21:36:49

list of terms for the 369 final
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  1. George C. Marshall
    CoS, Army; Sept. 1 1939 (same day as invasion of Poland)
  2. CCC
    Civilian conservation core; new deal program overseen by Marshall; important in mobilizing, commanding young ppl
  3. triangular division
    division with 3 regiments (changed from 4 "square" divison system); changed due to mechanization
  4. McNair
    Commander, Army Ground Forces (AGF); called for training maneauvors; in charge of training and implementing triangle divisions; killed while visiting front lines
  5. Somervell
    CG, Army Service Forces (ASF)
  6. Hap Arnold
    CG, Army Air Forces (AAF)
  7. OPD
    Operations Division; war planning and ops. div.; Marshall set policy and they implement; headed by Eisenhower
  8. Eisenhower
    headed OPD; Supreme Allied Commander
  9. Ernest J. King
    CNO; wanted Pacific ops; FDR pushed for N. Africa
  10. Montgomery
    Brit. Gen; won battle at El Alamain by the time US forces arrived
  11. Rommel
    German Commander in N. Africa (tanks; nemesis of Patton)
  12. Kasserine Pass
    site of US rout at hands of Rommel
  13. Omar Bradley
    Served under Patton; infantry thinker; eventually commanded II Corps
  14. CCS
    Combined Chiefs of Staff; forced issue of cross-channel invasion and necessary forces
  15. Alexander
    Oversaw invasion of Sicily (July-August 1943) conducted by Patton (7th) and Monty (8th)
  16. Mark Clark
    US commander in Italy; Jackass; could've captured thousands of German troops but wanted vain glory of capturing Rome (useless)
  17. Anzio
    Almost disaster; US troops blocked in at LZ; accidental friendly fire
  18. U-Boats
    German Submarines; showed obsolete nature of convoy system from WWI
  19. Convoy System
    travelling in packs of transports and naval vessels; made obsolete in WWII by technology increases
  20. D-Day
    June 6, 1944; cross-channel invasion at Normandy
  21. Saturated bombing
    Brit idea; saturate entire area with air raids; widespread destruction and civilian deaths
  22. Leigh-Mallory
    Brit Air Commander; appointed Com-in-Chief of Allied Expeditionary Air Forces for Normandy; nobody liked him
  23. Spaatz
    First Air Force CoS; advocated strategic bombing, not saturated bombing; had to be ordered to support D-Day ops.
  24. P-51 Mustang
    best fighter in the world; Rolls-Royce engine -> fighter; good range, high speeds; used to support B-17's; won the war for air superiority
  25. Ultra
    1st Computer by Allen Turing; decoded German communications
  26. Operation Tiger
    Practice for D-Day landing on British coast; German subs kill troops; hushed up to ensure operational secrecy; troops buried in secret and forgotten
  27. Bocage
    Hedges used as fences; slowed Allied advance
  28. VII AC
    7th Army Corps; commanded by Collins
  29. Collins
    Commander of 7th Army Corps; best corps commander; captured 39K Germans; worked well with Quesada for joint ops; nicknamed Lightning Joe
  30. El Alamein
    Site of victory by Monty
  31. Fredendall
    US commander; routed at Kasserine Pass due to improper use of Engineers (command post use instead of front line use); fired for it; led to Brit distrust of US military abilities
  32. Battle of Tunisia
    Allies force Germans out of Africa with help from Patton
  33. Quesada
    Head of AF Tactical Air; worked well with Collins; worked to put airmen in all tanks for better communication and coordination
  34. Roberts
    Private from Tenn.; put blades on tanks to clear Bocage
  35. Operation Cobra
    Ground advance by Collins / 7th AC; break through but Germans escape through Falais Gap due to Bradley
  36. Falais Gap
    Germans escape through Gap due to Bradley
  37. Red Ball Express
    24-hr supply trucks moving supplies from the beaches to the front
  38. Operation Market Garden
    Attempt to cross the Rhine; Brit and Polish paras drop behind enemy lines into SS division while US tries to cross in rowboats; failure
  39. Operation Dragoon
    Invasion of S. France by Devers to get more ports in France for supplies
  40. Devers
    HEad of Op. Dragoon
  41. Battle of the Bulge
    Ardennes Offensive by Germans; Patton hammers out bulge in Allies' line; leads to VE
  42. V-E Day
    May 8th, 1945; Germany surrenders to US 7th Army
  43. WAC
    Women's Army Corps; ~100K noncombat; flew some planes
  44. Lend-Lease
    1941: US produced materials for war to "lend" to Allies; $48 billion
  45. Goodbye Babies
    Birth rate had decreased during Depression (putting off marriage); also due to impending movement of husbands oversees
  46. Hoovervilles
    large populations of homeless but fully employed people; due to slow increase in housing < massive increase in population
  47. Relocation Centers
    Jap internment camps; total of 127K locked up
  48. Tuskegee Airmen
    Black AF regiment that fought in Italian campaign
  49. MacArthur
    Had been commanding some troops in the Phillipines; replaced by Wainwright to prevent capture by Japs

    During Pacific theater, took SW Pacific (SWPA) route towards phillipines

    UN Commander in Korea
  50. Wainwright
    Replaced MacArthur
  51. Bataan Death March
    US POWs forced on brutal march by Japs; killed if they collapsed
  52. Wars of National Liberation
    Civil Wars post WWII; 3 phases: political unrest; light resistance (violence and guerilla fighting), and regular armies
  53. WWII collaboration
    US, UK, USSR
  54. Caucus and the Dardanelles
    initial East-West conflicts
  55. Iron Curtain Speech
    Churchill, 1946
  56. Marshall Plan
    1947; US loans to W. Europe to rebuild; Soviets saw as a move against them
    1947; Communist Information Bureau; Soviet-dominated organization of Communist parties; desolved in 1956 with de-Stalinization
  58. NATO
    April 1949; inc in US military spending, # of nukes
  59. Soviet Nuclear Project
    1949 Soviet nuclear test; effort led by Beria
    Council for Mutual Economic Assistance; Soviet responce to Marshall Plan
  61. Mao and PRC
    embraced slowly by Stalin
  62. Kersten Amendment
    never happened; Truman sought to train covert armies to overthrow Commies in Europe
  63. Destalinization
    carried out by Beria; end of work camps; reaches out to Tito; asked E. Germany to slow down
  64. Detente and Helsinki Accords
    lessening of tensions; recognition of a bipolar world
  65. Molotov
    Stalin's right hand man in charge of foreign policy
  66. Beria
    Stalin's head of secret police, StateSec
  67. Khrushchev
    leader of Soviet Union after Stalin; leader during Cuban Missile Crisis; embarrassed Soviets
  68. Battle of Coral Sea
    Naval battle where neither fleet saw the other; US operational victory; first major battle of the Pacific; prevents Jap expansion into New Guinea
  69. Battle of Midway
    Use of MAGIC; bombers sank Jap carrier group; turning point of the war
  70. Buna
    battle in New Guinea; 1st land victory in Pacific
  71. 32nd (NatGuard) Division
    Unit with no jungle training, no artillery, malaria; 90% casualties
  72. Guadalcanal campaign
    Solomon islands; Japs building airfields; 11K Marines; poor coordination of reinforcements
  73. Nimitz
    took Central Pacific route; pushed toward Formosa (Taiwan)
  74. Essex Class Carrier
    revelutionary large aircraft carrier; only made 24 but very effective
  75. Holland M. Smith
    Marine; skilled in amphibious ops; used deception and trickery to provide safer, easier landings
  76. Marianas Turkey Shoot
    US Air dominance in the Marianas; shot down 346 Japs w/ only 30 loses
  77. Battle of Leyte Gulf
    Largest Naval battle in history; forces under control of MacArthur and Halsey respnded well to Jap surprise attack; almost a disaster
  78. Okinawa
    Jap Naval Port facility; 1 month to seize 8 miles
  79. Kamikaze
    Jap suicide bombers; first appear at Okinawa; killed 8K
  80. China, Burma, India Theater (CBI)
    East Asia (Land) theater
  81. Joe Stilwell
    Commander in CBI; spoke fluent chinese; could've been Supreme Allied commander, but served where Marshall needed him most
  82. Chang Kai-Shek
    Fascist Chinese Warlord; supported by US
  83. China Lobby
    lobby; blamed Stilwell that there was little progress in CBI; pro-China
  84. Fire bombing raids
    used in Pacific theater; extremely effective due to to Japanese use of wood and paper structures and ships; similar to napalm
  85. Manhattan Project
    US; $1 Billion towards atomic bomb creation
  86. Hiroshima
    Aug 6, 1945; first atomic bomb ever
  87. GI Bill
    provided soldiers, vets with funding to go to school; rotation out based on points system; low-interest loans
  88. Service Father's Release Association
    organization that pressured congress to bring back all troops
  89. Integration
    Truman establishes commission to examine level of integration; uses executive order to force integration
  90. Joint Ops
    Cooperation between two or more branches
  91. NatSec Act of 1947
    created independant AF; JCS; NatSec Council; CIA; SecDef (from SecWar)
  92. National Military Establishment (NME)
    NatSec 47; military organizaton composed of all things
  93. Revolt of the Admirals
    Naval Admirals complaining about increase in AF funding for B70 bombers over funding for super carriers; clear insubordination
  94. 1949 Amendment
    created DoD, makes SecDef a cabinet post
  95. Issues effecting US-Soviet relations during and after WWII
    Lend-lease, Second Front, Postwar loans, and Self-Determination
  96. Truman
    Prez after FDR; didn't respect Soviets
  97. UN Atomic Energy Commission
    every nation would undergo inspection, then US would give up nukes; Soviets don't allow
  98. Mao
    Communist in China; intervened in Korean War because he didn't want a non-communist in the region
  99. Truman Doctrine
    US suport for Greek anti-commies; establishes containment
  100. Containment
    US policy to halt the spread of communism; belief that communism would only survive through expansion
  101. George F Kennan
    1949; sent Long Telegram outlining containment
  102. Long Telegram
    written by George F Kennan; containment
  103. X Article
    written by Kennan under pseudonym "X"
  104. Collective Security
    NATO and other agreements, treaties, pacts for joint inernational security
  105. NATO
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization; formed to block expansion of communism
  106. NSC-88
    NSC made containment official national policy in 1950
  107. Syngman Rhee
    Korean nationalist leader in S Korea
  108. Task Force Smith
    US force to stop advancing NK tanks; understrength battalion; easily outflanked and forced to retreat to Pusan
  109. Pusan Perimeter
    fall back point of TF Smith
  110. Walton Walker
    stabilized Pusan; good commander; dies; replaced by Ridgway
  111. Inchon
    Amphibious landing by MacArthur; successful push inward to capture Seoul
  112. Ridgway
    replaced Walker; launched counterattack that pushed commies north of 38th parallel
  113. Chipyongi
    US/UN troops under Ridgway are trapped and must defend; US counterattack during night shows US superiority in firepower, artillery; China lost 5K, US lost 325; ended war
  114. Fight and Roll
    US strategy to fight then fall back so as t onot get overwhelmed
  115. John Foster Dulles
    SecState under Ike; advocated brinksmanship and massive retaliation
  116. Brinksmanship
    Threatening to bring the world to the brink of nuclear war
  117. Massive Retaliation
    limits ability to respond; nukes are cheaper than soldiers; massive retaliation tactics meant more money could be used in other areas of the economy than military
  118. Strategic Air Command
    SAC; AF op created after WWII; in charge of land based bomber aircraft and nuclear arsenal
  119. Curtis LeMay
    in charge of SAC from late 40's - late 50's; understood danger of nukes and imposed strict rules
  120. Eisenhower Doctrine
    Policy intended to preserve independance of nations in Middle East; offered military aid (troops) to fight against commies in ME
  121. Richard Nixon
    VP under Ike; Vietnamization; invades Cambodia and Laos
  122. Military Industrial Complex
    speech given by Ike; warns of military control of politics
  123. JFK
    Opposite of Ike; Democrat seen as soft on commies
  124. Flexible Response
    Policy alternative to massive retaliation where threats or violence are met with proportional, cooresponding violence; advocated by JFK
  125. McNamara
    SecDef under JFK; number cruncher; wanted to quantify the unquantifiable
  126. Green Berets
    spec ops established under JFK; counterinsurgency; stationed at Ft. Bragg
  127. Bay of Pigs
    effort between Cuban refugees and CIA to overthrow Castro; failure; caused JFK to lose faith in JCS
  128. Ho Chi Minh
    commie leader of Viet revolution; helps repel Japs from Viet; turned to Soviets when Truman refused to help
  129. Geneva Accords
    Divided NV and SV at 17th Parallel
  130. Domino Theory
    belief that if one nation falls to communism, the others around if will fall as well
  131. Diem
    unpopular leader of SV at beginning of conflict; assassinated; supported by JFK due to Catholicism; persecuted Buddhists and others; assassination scared JFK and prompted him to send troops
  132. Viet Cong
    VC; NV insurgents
  133. Lyndon B. Johnson
    LBJ; vulgar; hated JFK's friends (smart, upperclass); distrusted military
  134. MACV
    Military Assistance Command, Vietnam; headed by Westmoreland; reliance on body counts
  135. Westmoreland
    head of MACV; relied on body counts
  136. Body counts
    part of McNamara's love of numbers; misleading figure that was highly touted
  137. Gulf of Tonkin
    NV fire on US ships in international waters
  138. Tonkin Gulf Resolution
    by Congress; gave pres a blank check; could use all necessary force to repel attacks
  139. Pleiku
    Massacre of US marines
  140. Operation Rolling Thunder
    LBJ policy to bomb NV;tests in la Drang Valley LBJ himself picks targets; dumb
  141. la Drang Valley
    testing of Operation Rolling Thunder; lots of US casualties but successful
  142. Tet Offensive
    NV and VC offensive; reported on by Walter Cronkite
  143. My Lai
    Shooting of Viet civilians by crazy commander
  144. Vietnamization
    Nixon's plan to gradually turn over military operations to the SV military
  145. MIRV
    Multiple independant re-entry vehicle; multi-warhead missiles; limited by SALT I
  146. Election of 1964
    LBJ vs Goldwater; LBJ sweeps it
  147. Goldwater
    painted as radical
  148. Great Society
    LBJ's war on poverty
  149. Guns v. Butter
    Can't spend money on social reforms (butter) and military (guns)
  150. Hawks and Doves
    Hawks want war; Doves want Peace
  151. 1968 Election
    LBJ doesn't run for reelection; Humphrey v. Nixon; Nixon wins
  152. Eugene McCarthy
    Almost beat LBJ in primary
  153. George Wallace
    Law and Order; anti-hippie; let the generals win the war; VP was LeMay
  154. LeMay
    VP ticket mate for Wallace
  155. Hubert Humphrey
    Dem nom in 1968
  156. Battle of Chicago
    1968 DNC; lots of violence; protest against Humphrey
  157. Imperial Precidency
    Nixon's vast expansion of presidential power
  158. Madman theory
    Nixon plan to convice NV that he is just crazy enough to launch nukes
  159. Cambodia
    Nixon secretly bombed VC supply lines running through Cambodia
  160. Kent State incident
    4 students killed in clash with NatGuard
  161. Pentagon Papers
    leaked to the NYT; nixon tried to get them banned from printing it on NatSec grounds; Supreme Court sides with NYT
  162. Plumbers
    Group founded by Nixon to do his dirty work; "plug leaks;" paraintel, given money, power, guns; covert ops, sabotage, intel gathering; bad at their jobs
  163. Watergate
    1972; Plumbers break into DNC headquarters; Nixon responds by having the CIA tell the FBI to stop investigation
  164. War Powers Act of 1974
    President can send forces where he sees fit, but has to inform congress within 48 hours; after 60 days needs Congressional approval; technically unconstitutional; ignored
  165. S = E + W + M
    • During Vietnam
    • ends = political aims
    • ways = unclear war goals
    • means = forces committed were incapable of progressing war effort
  166. Kissinger
    SecState under Nixon; negotiatied SALT I
  167. Easter Offensive
    3 NV divisions with 300 tanks launch offensive; nixon responds with resumed bombings and SV help their positions
  168. Nixon Doctrine
    Countries responsible for their own defense unless under nuclear threat
  169. Brezhnev
    signed SALT I with Nixon
  170. AirLand Battle
    US Doctrine against USSR invasion of Europe; attack in depth
  171. Initiative
    US lost initiative in Viet
  172. Don Starry
    formulated AirLand Battle
  173. ABM
    Anti-Ballistic Missile System; strategic development banned under SALT
  174. Gerald Ford
    VP under Nixon
  175. Jimmy Carter
    cut military budget, then increased it; Iran hostage situation was humiliation, ruined presidency
  176. Iran Hostage Crisis
    US embassy in Iran stormed; 52 hostages taken, held for 444 days
  177. Reagan
    Elected in '82; big on military spending
  178. Weinberger Doctrine
    • Weinberger was SecState under Reagan; laid out when the US would use force
    • -Must be vital National interest
    • -willingness to commit necessary forces
    • -clear objectives
    • -forces to achieve objectives
    • -public support
    • -only as last resort
  179. Goldwater-Nichols Act
    1986, restructured the JCS; created CJCS and Vice Chairman
  180. Specified Commands
    Joint commands; CENTCOM, PACCOM, etc; commanders report directly to CJCS
  181. joint commands
    commands with multiple service branches
  182. Joint Staff
    all branch heads
  183. Gorbachev
    Head of USSR during Reagan; young, open-minded; advocated glasnost
  184. Glasnost
    openness within the Soviet Union
  185. Stratigic Defense Initiative / STAR WARS
    anti-ballistic missile defense in outer space
  186. Saddam Hussein
    leader of Iraq; invades Kuwait over debt issues; conventional war against US
  187. First Gulf War
    US goes in on behalf of allies; conventional war played right into US hands
  188. Schwarzkopf
    US commander in First Gulf War (CENTCOM); temper; shoot the messenger type
  189. Don't Ask, Don't Tell
    Military policy enacted under Clinton regarding gays servicing in the military
  190. Barry McCaffrey
    Went to White House in uniform; staff member makes snide comment; results in large scandal for Clinton
  191. Rumsfeld
    SecDef under Dubya; did not listen to anyone, especially subordinates
  192. Osama bin Laden
    terrorist behind 9/11
  193. Afghanistan
    was shielding bin Laden