Bio 1200 last test!

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Bio 1200 last test!
2012-04-29 19:40:37
Bio 1200 last test

Bio 1200 last test!
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  1. Reproduction on dry land
    • 1. Gametes produced (and protected) in multicelluar structures called gametangia
    • 2. Embryo retained and nourished by parent (mother) plant (embryophytes)
    • 3. Desiccation-resistant spores; alternation of generations
    • 4. Pollen!

  2. Land plants practice a complex life cycle called
    Alternation of Generations

  3. pollen grain (n) is the
    male gametophyte!

  4. The same gametophyte produces both egg and sperm

  5. heterosperms-
    seeded, differnt gametophyte for egg and sperm

  6. --------------- shares common ancestor with all Land Plants

  7. tracheid, then Vessel element

  8. Redwood
    Sequoia simpervirens

  9. Seedless=
    • homo
    • hetero, male and female

  10. Deceit=
    Carrion flower

  11. Land plants appear: Fossil cuticle, spores, sporangia
    Diversification of flowering plant
    • 475 Ma
    • 145 Ma

  12. Animalia -
    multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryans with tissues that develop from embryonic layers

  13. Major animal features
    • • No cell walls• Tissues (e.g., muscle, nervous)• Active movement• Sexual reproduction (haploid cells function directly—and only—as gametes)
    • • Share unique embryonic development
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    • amniote lineage with a single post-orbital opening on the skull
  15. Early synapsids formed a group called

  16. Therapsids:
    the second major clade of nonmammalian synapsids

  17. Mammalia
    (4,500 species)• Hair• Mammary glands (lactation)• Three ossicles (bones) in middle ear• Single mandibular bone (dentary)

  18. ear contains three ossicles (bones)
    • 1. malleus
    • 2. incus
    • 3. stapes

  19. Mammalia
    (three major clades)
    • Monotremata-eggs• Marsupiala- pouch• Eutheria- plecenta

  20. Viviparity-
    live young
  21. Gametes produced (and protected) in multicelluar structures called
  22. Antheridium
    • male - an
    • female-arch
  23. three Ds of spores


  24. placenta
    formed from the allantois and chorion
  25. Discuss the “terrestrial challenge” in light of vertebrates.
    Supporting bodyweight, movement, exchange of respiratory gases, Preventing desiccation, reproduction
  26. Frogs --------- (means without
    order Anura
  27. Lung less salamanders
    Depend completely on skin and such
    Salamander family Plethodontidae
  28. Geckos
    • climb with foot pads covered
    • with specialized scales call setae (made of individual spatulae
    • Clinging through van der Waals
    • forces
  29. Snakes-
    • over 120 precaudal vertebrae
    • Snakes are embedded phylogenetically
    • within Lizards (aka specialized Lizards)
    • Limb loss has evolved multiple times
    • in many lizard lineages
  30. o Forked tongue
    allows snakes to sense their environment Chemosensory edge detector
  31. o Crocodila
    • Four-chambered heart (most
    • sophisticated of any vertebrate)
    • Parental care
    • Dermal pressure receptors
    • Saltwater crocodile-largest crocodile
  32. Why does Archaeopteryx qualify as a
    transition fossil?
    • It’s thought to have been able to
    • glide
  33. List features that play an important role in bird flight.
    • feathers
    • Light weight skeleton
    • Air sacs
    • Organ reduction
  34. The Pattern of Evolution
    • Fossil record• Extinction• Transitional forms• Vestigial traits• Physiological change
  35. Natural selection
    sorts existing variants; it does not createor change them.
  36. Dominant
    • Dominant-A
    • recessive-a
    • codominant-A1A2
  37. Hardy winberg
  38. hardy winberg variables
    • p= frequency of gene one
    • q= frequency of gene two
    • p2=A1A1
    • 2pq=A1A2
    • q2=A2A2
  39. Hardy-Weinberg principle • Do allele frequencies and genotypicfrequencies change from one generation tothe next?
  40. The Hardy-Weinberg principle acts as
    a null hypothesis when biologists want totest whether evolution or nonrandommating is occurring at a particular gene
  41. From allelic frequencies we can compute
    genotypic frequencies, and vice versa
  42. What causes nonrandom mating?
    • Inbreeding (mating between closely related individuals
    • increases homozygosity in populations

    sexual selection
  43. 1. prezygotic isolation
    2. postzygotic isolation
    • 1. prezygotic isolation(prevents mating or zygoteformation between
    • species)2. postzygotic isolation(inviable or sterile offspring)
  44. species with key innovaiton jaws