Final Test

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Author:
kdnd03
ID:
150975
Filename:
Final Test
Updated:
2012-04-30 02:47:19
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BIO211
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Description:
human microbio
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  1. Poxviridae
    • •Double-stranded DNA, enveloped viruses
    • –Orthopoxvirus (vaccinia and smallpox viruses)
    • –Molluscipoxvirus
    • –Smallpox
    • –Molluscum contagiosum
    • –Cowpox
  2. Picornaviridae
    • -Single-stranded RNA, + strand, nonenveloped
    • -Enterovirus
    • -Poliovirus and coxsackievirus
    • Rhinovirus
    • -Hepatitis A virus
  3. Caliciviridae
    • •Single-stranded RNA, + strand, nonenveloped
    • –Hepatitis E virus
    • –Norovirus causes gastroenteritis
  4. Flaviviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA, + strand, enveloped
    • –Arboviruses can replicate in arthropods; include yellow fever, dengue, SLE, and West Nile viruses
    • –Hepatitis C virus
  5. Coronaviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA, + strand, enveloped
    • –Upper respiratory infections
    • –Coronavirus
    • –SARS
  6. Filoviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA, – strand, one RNA strand
    • –Filovirus
    • –Enveloped, helical viruses
    • –Ebola and Marburg viruses
  7. Paramyxoviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA, – strand, one RNA strand
    • –Paramyxovirus
    • –Morbillivirus
    • –Parainfluenza
    • –Mumps
    • –Newcastle disease (chickens)
  8. Orthomyxoviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA, – strand, multiple RNA strands
    • –Envelope spikes can agglutinate RBCs
    • –Influenzavirus (influenza viruses A and B)
    • –Influenza C virus
  9. Bunyaviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA, – strand, multiple RNA strands
    • –Bunyavirus (CE virus)
    • –Hantavirus
  10. Retroviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA, 2 RNA strands, produce DNA
    • –Use reverse transcriptase to produce DNA from viral genome
    • –Lentivirus (HIV)
    • –Oncogenic viruses
    • •Includes all RNA tumor viruses
  11. capsid
    the protein coat of a virus that surrounds the nucleic acid
  12. capsomere
    a protein sub unit of a viral capsid
  13. envelope
    an outer covering surrounding the capsid of some viruses
  14. non-envelope
    capsids are not covered
  15. complex viruses
    virus with a complicated structure such as a vacteriophage
  16. helical viruses
    long rods, the viruses causes rabies and ebola fever
  17. polyhedral viruses
    has many sides it is also the shape of an icosahedro
  18. cytopathic effect (CPE)
    cell deterioration
  19. lytic cycle
    a mechanism of phage multiplication that results in host cell
  20. lysogenic cycle
    stages in viral development that results in the incorporation of viral DNA into host DNA
  21. pinocytosis
    engulfing of fluid by infolding of the plasma membrane in eukaryotes
  22. uncoating
    seperation of the viral nucleic acid from its protein coat once the virion is enclosed within the vesicle
  23. budding
    the envelop actually develops around the capsid
  24. oncogenes
    gene that can bring about malignant transformation
  25. oncogenic viruses
    virus that is capable of producing tumors, called oncovirus
  26. prion
    an infectious agent consisting of a self-replicating protein, with no detatachable nucleic acids
  27. viroid
    infectious RNA
  28. Virus
    • submicroscopic parasitic filterable agent con of a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein con.
    • family names end in viridae
  29. genomics
    the study of genes and their function
  30. genus names end in virus
  31. sense strand
    positive strand RNA virus
  32. anti-sense strand
    negative strand RNA virus
  33. double stranded RNA viruses
  34. provirus
    viral DNA that is intergrated into the host cell's DNA
  35. The virulence of a microbe is often expressed as the ID 50
  36. The potency of a toxin is often expressed as the LD 50
  37. biofilms
    a microbial community that usually forms as a slimy layer on a surface
  38. M protein
    a heat and acid resistance protein of streptococcal cell walls and fibrils
  39. Opa
    a bacterial outer membrane protein, cells with opa form opaque colonies
  40. fimbriae
    an appendage on a bacterial cell used for attachment
  41. coagulases
    bacterial exzyme that causes blood plasma to clot
  42. kinases
    a bacterial enzyme that breaks down fibrin(blood clots)
  43. hyaluronidase
    an enzyme secreted by certain bacteria that hydrolyzes hyaluronic acid and helps spread micro organisms from their initial site of infections
  44. collagenase
    breaks down collagen
  45. IgA proteases
    enzymes that deestrooy antibodies
  46. antigenic variation
    changes in surface antigens that occur in a microbial population
  47. invasins
    a surface protein produced by salmonella typhimurium and e. coli that rearranges near by actin filaments in the cytoskeleton of a host cell
  48. siderophores
    bacterial iron-binding proteins
  49. toxigenicity
    the capacity of a microorganism to produce a toxin
  50. toxemia
    the presence of toxins in the blood
  51. exotoxins
    a protein toxin released from living, mostly gram positive bacterial cells
  52. endotoxins
    part of the outer portion of the cell wall (lipid A) of most gram neg bacteria; released on destruction of the cell
  53. mutation
    change in the base sequence of dna
  54. base substitution
    a single base at one point in the DNA sequence is replaced with a different base (Most common)
  55. missense mutation
    a substitution of an amino acid in the synthesized protein
  56. nonsense mutation
    a base substitution in DNA that results in a nonsense codon
  57. frameshift mutation
    a mutation caused by the addition or deletion of one or more bases in DNA
  58. spontaneous mutation
    a mutation that occurs without a mutagen
  59. mutagen
    an agent in the environment that brings about mutations
  60. chemical mutagens
    changes the DNA with exposure to nitrous acid can convert the base adenine to a form that doesn't pair with thtymine
  61. nucleoside analog
    chemical that is structurally similar to the normal nucleosides in nucleic acids but with altered base-pairing properties
  62. photolyases
    an enzyme that splits thymine dimersin the presence of visible light
  63. nucleotide excision repair
    the repairing of DNA involving removal of defectiive nucleotides and replacement with functional ones
  64. methylases
    enzymes add to methyl group to selected bases soon after a DNA strad is made
  65. bacteriophage
    a virus that infects bacterial cells
  66. saxitoxin
    a neurotoxin produced by some dinoflagellates
  67. mutation rate
    the probability a gene will mutate each time a cell divides
  68. monomers, dimers, polymers
    • sugars are calld saccharides
    • -mono, di, oligo, poly

    • lipids
    • -simple; triglyceride
    • -complex;phospholipid

    • proteins
    • -protein structure (folding)
    • -peptide bond
    • -lock & key model of enzyme fx
  69. glycocalyx
    • outside cell wall
    • usually sticky
    • capsule; neatly organized
    • slime layer; unorganized and loose
    • extracellular polysaccaride allows cell to attatch
    • capsules prevent phagocytosis
  70. xanthomonas campestris xanthan gum
    polymer ofo glucose, mannose, and glucuronic acid
  71. organic compounds
    • carb (sugars)
    • lipids (fat)
    • proteins
    • nucleic acid (DNA/RNA)
  72. flagella
    • outside cell wall
    • made of chains of flagellin protein
    • attach to a protein hook
    • anchored to the wall and membrane by the basal body
  73. motile cells
    • rotate flagella to run or tumble
    • move toward or away from stimula (taxis)
    • flagella proteins are H antigens
  74. Fimbriae and Pili
    • Fimbriae allow attachment
    • Pili
    • -facilitate transfer of DNA from 1 cell to another
    • -gliding motility
    • -twiching motility
  75. gram positive cell wall
    • thick peptiodoglycan
    • teichoic acids
  76. gram negative cell wall
    • thin peptidoglycan
    • outer membrane
    • periplasmic space
  77. the cell wall
    • prevents osmotic lysis
    • made of peptiodoglycan (in bacteria)
  78. peptidoglycan
    • polymer of disaccharide
    • -NAG
    • -NAM
  79. plasma membrane
    • phospholipid bilayer
    • peripheral proteins
    • intergral proteins
    • transmembrane
    • proteins
  80. fluid mosaic model
    • membrane is a viscous as olive oil
    • proteins move to fx
    • phospholipids rotate and move laterally
  81. gram-negative outer mebrane
    • protection from phagocytes, complement, and antibiotics
    • o polysaccharide antigen
    • lipid A is an endotoxin
    • porins (proteins) form channels through membrane
  82. simple diffusion
    movement of a solute from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
  83. facilitated diffusion
    solute combines with a transporter protein in the membrane
  84. osmosis
    the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water to an area of lower water concentration
  85. osmotic pressure
    the pressure needed to stop the movement of water across the membrane
  86. cytoplasm
    the substance inside the plasma membrane
  87. prokaryotic ribosome
    • protein synthesis
    • 70s
    • 50s + 30s subunits
  88. endospores
    • resting cells
    • resistant to desiccation, heat, chemicals
    • bacillus, clostridium
  89. sporulation
    endospore formation
  90. germination
    return to vegetative state
  91. cell wall and glycocalyx
    • cell wall
    • -plants, algae, fungi
    • -carbs
    • cellulose, chitin, glucan, mannan

    • glycocalyx
    • -carbs extending from animal plasma membrane
    • -bonded to proteins and lipids in membrane
  92. plasma membrane
    • selective permability allows passage of some molecules
    • simple diffusion
    • facilitative diffusion
    • osmosis
    • active transport
    • endocytosis
  93. phagocytosis
    pseudopods extend and engulf particles
  94. pinoocytosis
    membrane folds inward bringing in fluid and dissolved substances
  95. cytoplasm
    cytoplasm membrane-substance inside plasma and outside the nucleus
  96. cytosol
    fluid portion of cytoplasm
  97. cytoskeleton
    microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
  98. cytoplasmic streaming
    moveement of cytoplasm throughout cell
  99. organelles
    • nucleus- contains chromosomes
    • er- transport network
    • golgi complex- membrane formation and secretion
    • lysosome- difestive enzymes
    • vacuole- brings food into cells and provides support
    • mitochondrion- cellular respiration
    • chloroplast- photosynthesis
    • peroxisome- oxidation of fatty acides; destroys h202
    • centrosome- consists of protein fibers and centrioles

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