History Final

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History Final
2012-04-30 20:35:13

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  1. Populism
    • an ideology, political philosophy,or type of discourse.
    • Generally, a common theme where "the people" are against "the elite"
    • urges social and political system changes

    • Good example was during the, "Perfect Storm" in Cuba
    • the populists retreat towards the working class and lose the support of everyone else
    • can only pick one side, and after picking that side, there is no chance of ever winning the hearts of the side you didnt pick
  2. Import-Substitution Industrialization
    • (often called ISI)
    • ISI is a trade and economic policy that advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production.
    • ISI is based on the premise that a country should attempt to reduce its foreign dependency through the local production of industrialized products

    • A good example is Mexico City
    • Mexico City started to industrialize and become more independent in the mid 1940s
    • population grew by almost 4X the original level during the years of 1940-60
  3. Boxer Rebelion

    • Former peasants
    • Harmed by natural disasters
    • “All of this is the fault of the foreigners”
    • “lets do something about it”

    • Legation Quarter
    • Bejeing
    • Big section where all the European powers had big embassies
    • Foreign residents lived here and had their home offices here
    • Boxers whoop up on em
    • Emperor joins the boxers (sends the army)

    • Eight Nation Army
    • Boxers whoop up on the elites for about 50 days
    • Eight nation army show up to take out the boxers
    • 50,000 troops; Japan sent 20,000 alone
    • China forced to sign a damning treaty once again
    • Millions of pounds of silver
    • Today, billion dollars
  4. Chiang Kai-Shek

    • Took over after Sun Yat Shen died
    • Very different
    • More conservative
    • More wary of western influence in china
    • Wary of democracy
    • More authoritarian
    • Very wary of socialism
    • Anti communist
    • Tension ensues
    • Russians saw an ally with sen; not wit shek
    • Alliance goes to hell

    • Northern Campaign
    • Shek orders GMD army to drive north and try to defeat the regional warlords of China
    • Successful
    • Beats many warlords, and make treaties with those that he cant
    • GMD is now, “the political party”
    • Now that he thinks he is big and bad, he takes it a step further

    • Shangai Massacre
    • Shek orders the KMT to assignate communist and labor leaders
    • 12,000 killed
    • signals a dramatic change
    • many flee, some make it, some don’t
    • communist head south
    • regroup in southern china
    • KMT in charge now
    • until...CCP Mao comes along...
  5. Theodor Herzl

    • created Zionism
    • Wrote a book called Judenstaat (meaning Jewish state)
    • Said anti-Semitism was so bad, Jews need a state of their own
    • Jews start buying land in what is now Israel and west bank
    • Brits come up with Balfour Declaration
    • Declare that they support Jewish homeland
    • Arabs don’t like it; just got their independence
    • Jews were like, look, we almost got completely taken out, we bought this land fair and square, it's ours
    • War;
    • Jews win
  6. Balfour Decleration


    • Brits come up with Balfour Declaration
    • Declare that they support Jewish homeland

    • League of Nations
    • Palestine becomes British Mandate, 1922

    • 1922-1948 (Pale under brit rule)
    • growth of jewish population and Zionist project
    • Hebrew adopted as main language to unify jewish nation

    • Kibbutzim;
    • Agriculture communes where people work collectively; Its here where they are also forging this community

    • Jewish population in pale is 10% in 1918
    • Jewish population in pale is 30% in 1936

    • Arabs start becoming worried
    • Arab tension
    • Arab Revolt in 1936
    • Take up arms and target jews
    • Brits arrested the arabs
  7. Glasnost

    • a policy which called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions and activities in the Soviet Union
    • Introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in the second half of the 1980s, Glasnost is often paired with Perestroika, another reform instituted by Gorbachev at the same time

    • encourages a culture of criticism
    • Point out people who are corrupt, inept, etc
    • Gorbachev hoped that it would create a spirit for change
    • Attempt to reveal the interest groups that don’t want change

    • After finally being ablt to criticize the USSR, people start really criticizing lol
    • Prior to this point, they never criticized due to fear of inprisonment, death, etc

    • Mikhail Gorbachev:
    • "No reason for the SU to fall though
    • Our 15 republics work better together than apart
    • Remake the relationship and this will still be a good thing"

    • Demand for autonomy within USSR though
    • Baltic republics were the first to respond to Glasnost and Perestroika
    • They dont push for independence though
    • They're still afraid of being taken over by SU
    • Ask for autonomy within the USSR instead
  8. Perestroika

    reintroduced private ownership

    • Created by Mikhail
    • Need to rebuild the economy
    • State run economy needs to be restructured

    • 1988 – law on cooperatives
    • most important aspect
    • reintroduced private ownership
    • private ownership had been outlawed since the 1920s
    • done away with when he dies though...
  9. Long March

    • 1934, shek is in the south putting pressure on CCP
    • CCP walked about 6,000 miles
    • 100,000 people (beuracrats, military, etc)
    • more of a flee from shek army lol
    • takes its toll
    • many casualities
    • 100,000 becomes 4-7,000
    • Mao emerges as an uncontested hero and leader though
  10. Truman Doctrine
    • USA
    • GREECE
    • TURKEY

    a policy set forth by the U.S. President Harry S. Truman in 1947, stating that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere

    The effect was to end the Communist threat, and in 1952 both countries (Greece and Turkey) joined NATO; a military alliance that guaranteed their protection

    Truman argued that if Greece and Turkey did not receive the aid that they urgently needed, they would inevitably fall to communism with grave consequences throughout the region
  11. Jacobo Arbenz

    Guatemalan military officer and politician who served as Defense Minister of Guatemala from 1944 to 1951

    • Introduced Land Reform
    • Still producing one product (bananas)
    • Sort of copied off Bolivia

    • United Fruit
    • Purchased million acres prior to this time for future use
    • Used this space to make new products other than bananas

    • John Daules SEC of STATE and Allen Daules CIA
    • Both saw this as a communist takeover and wanted it to end
    • Used two different routes to destroy it: diplomatic and covert; worked

    • Diplomatic
    • OAS 1954 Caracas Decloration
    • Where the Daules went to undermine Jacobo and call what he is doing anti American
    • Decloration agreed and said that Jacobo needed to be stopped

    • Covert
    • Castillo Armas
    • Leader of the guatemalan army
    • chosen by the CIA to undermine communism in Guatemala
    • Overthrows Jacobo, and becomes president of Guatemala
  12. Cuban Revolution, 1959

    • armed revolt by Fidel Castro's July Movement against the regime of Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista between 1953 and 1959.
    • Batista was ousted in1959, and was replaced by Castro's revolutionary government.
    • This government later reformed along communist lines, becoming the Communist Party of Cuba in 1965, which is still in power today
  13. Sayyid Qutb

    • Famous for writing Milestones
    • Spent two years in America
    • Spiritual founder of Al-Qaida
    • Leading member of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the1950s and '60s
    • Ended up being hung

    Even though most of his observations and criticism were leveled at the Muslim world, Qutb is also known for his intense disapproval of the society and culture of the United States,which he saw as obsessed with materialism, violence, and sexual pleasures
  14. Six Day War
    • ISRAEL
    • EGYPT
    • JORDAN
    • SYRIA

    After a period of high tension between Israel and its neighbors, the war began on June 5 with Israel launching surprise air strikes against Arab forces

    • In May 1967, Nasser received false reports from the Soviet Union that Israel was massing on the Syrian border
    • Nasser began massing his troops on the Sinai Peninsula on Israel's border
    • Israel used this to their advantage and was able to bomb the Eyptian Army all at once and gain the advantage from the very beginning

    • The outcome was a swift and decisive Israeli victory.
    • Israel took effective control of the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, the West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria.

    Important to understand that it went as a loss for not only Nasser, but the entire Middle East
  15. Lebensraum

    • one of the major political ideas of Adolf Hitler, and an important component of Nazi ideology
    • It served as the motivation for the expansionist policies of Nazi Germany, aiming to provide extra space for the growth of the German population, for a Greater Germany
    • In Hitler's book Mein Kampf, he detailed his belief that the German people needed Lebensraum ("living space", i.e. land and raw materials), and that it should be found in the East
    • It was the stated policy of the Nazis to kill, deport, or enslave the Polish, Russian and other Slavic populations, whom they considered inferior, and to repopulate the land with Germanic people.

    • “Living space”
    • “Realm to live in”
    • Ideology which manifests into actions

    • Lebensraum
    • Picks up on nationalism
    • After the war (WW1), Germany's sovereignty was taken away
    • Hitler tried to unify and create a greater Germany
    • To do this, they engaged in imperialism
    • Rhineland 1936
    • Austria 1938
    • Sudetenland 1938

    • 1939
    • invades Poland
    • makes the Lebensraum ideology more powerful
    • not enough to unify the people; you need to “obtain space” as well
    • used mostly for food security; good soils for farming
    • Space gets mixed up with Race
    • mostly Slavic
    • seen as less to Germans
    • Sense of Superiority
    • Social Darwinism
    • Scientific Racism
    • Both start creeping back up
    • Race determines a nations/peoples ability
    • Easy to see racism towards blacks/Asians
    • Its always been around
    • Harder to see racism towards Slavic
    • Mass execution of Jews and Poles
  16. Bolshevik

    Disagreed with Russification

    • Russificatin
    • Define a set of behaviors and values
    • Insist that everyone buy into it
    • Much like Americanization
    • Here, they persecuted those who did not assimilate
    • Laws/penalties to minorities
    • Some disagreed with the policies…Bolshevik

    • Bolshevik Party
    • Vladimir Lenin
    • Equal nations
    • Unity of workers
    • Critical of Russification
    • Emphasis on self determination
    • Oppose of persecution which forced people into Russification
    • Oppose of imperialism
    • After the Russian Revolution, the Bolshevik ideology became the Russian ideology
  17. Salt March

    • an important part of the Indian independence movement
    • It was a direct action campaign of tax resistance and nonviolent protest against the British salt monopoly in colonial India, and triggered the wider Civil Disobedience Movement
    • This march directly followed the declaration of independence by the Indian National Congress in 1930

    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (commonly called Mahatma Gandhi) led the Dandi march from his base to the sea coast
  18. Jamal Nasser

    • Second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death
    • A colonel in the Egyptian army
    • Nasser led the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 which overthrew the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan, and heralded a new period of modernization

    • Nasser is seen as one of the most important political figures in both modern Arab history and politics in the 20th century
    • Under his leadership, Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal Company and came to play a central role in anti-imperialist efforts in the Arab World and Africa
    • The imposed ending to the Suez Crisis made him a hero throughout the Arab world
    • He is well known for his nationalist policies and version of pan-Arabism, also referred to as Nasserism, which won a great following in the Arab World during the 1950s and 1960s

    Although his status as "leader of the Arabs" was badly damaged by the Israeli victory over the Arab armies in the Six-Day War, as well as Egypt's failure to win the subsequent War of Attrition against Israel, many in the general Arab population still view Nasser as a symbol of Arab dignity and freedom.
  19. Yom Kippur War
    • ISRAEL
    • EGYPT
    • SYRIA

    • The war began with a massive and successful Egyptian crossing of the Suez Canal during the first three days, but eventually settled into a stalemate
    • The Syrians coordinated their attack on the Golan Heights to coincide with the Egyptian offensive and initially made threatening gains against the greatly outnumbered Israelis

    • Within a week, Israel recovered and launched a four-day counter-offensive, driving deep into Syria
    • To relieve this pressure, the Egyptians went back on the offensive, but were decisively defeated
    • The Israelis then counterattacked at the seam between two Egyptian armies, crossed the Suez Canal, and advanced southward and westward in over a week of heavy fighting
  20. Kemal Attaturk

    • Credited with being the founder of the Republic of Turkey
    • Atatürk was a military officer during World War I
    • Following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, he led the Turkish national movement in the Turkish War of Independence
    • Having established a provisional government in Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies
    • His military campaigns gained Turkey independence

    • Atatürk then embarked upon a program of political, economic, and cultural reforms, seeking to transform the former Ottoman Empire into a modern,westernized and secular nation-state
    • The principles of Atatürk's reforms, upon which modern Turkey was established, are referred to as Kemalism

    • military officer
    • started the Surname law
    • your name was just the son of ___________
    • passed a last name law
    • Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
    • Changed language from Arabic to latin
  21. Apartheid

    • system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by theNational Party governments of South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority non-white inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and white supremacy and Afrikaner minority rule was maintained
    • Apartheid was developed after World War II by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party and Broederbond organizations and was practiced also in South West Africa, which was administered by South Africa under a League of Nations mandate (revoked in 1966), until it gained independence as Namibia in 1990

    • Apartheid sparked significant internal resistance and violence as well as a long arms and trade embargo against South Africa
    • Since the 1950s, a series of popular uprisings and protests were met with the banning of opposition and imprisoning of anti-apartheid leaders
    • As unrest spread and became more effective, state organisations responded with increasing repression and state-sponsored violence

    Apartheid was dismantled in a series of negotiations from 1990 to 1993, culminating in elections in 1994, the first in South Africa with universal suffrage
  22. Biafra

    • a secessionist state in south-eastern Nigeria that existed from 1967 to 1970, taking its name from the Bight of Biafra (the Atlantic bay to its south)
    • The inhabitants were mostly the Igbo people who led the secession due to economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions among the various peoples of Nigeria
    • The creation of the new country was among the complex causes for the Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War.

    • Nigerian Civil War (also called the Biafran War)
    • East vs West
    • East wanted to succeed from the rest of the country
    • Once war ended, there were no executions or anything like that
    • Similar to the USA civil war
    • Just became citizens
    • Made them feel like they were more of a country

    • Location:
    • South of Nigeria
    • West of Cameroon
  23. Goodluck Johnathan

    Current president of Nigeria

    • was selected to run as the vice-presidential candidate on the ruling Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) presidential ticket in the 2007 presidential elections
    • was Vice-President of Nigeria from 2007 until 2010 when Nigeria's Senate invoked the doctrine of necessity to empower him to serve as Acting President, with all the accompanying powers, due to President Yar'Adua's prolonged absence from Nigeria
  24. OPEC

    • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries is a permanent, intergovernmental Organization, created at the Baghdad Conference on September 10–14, 1960, by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela
    • The five Founding Members were later joined by nine other Members
    • According to its statutes, one of the principal goals is the determination of the best means for safeguarding the organization's interests, individually and collectively
    • OPEC's influence on the market has been widely criticized, since it became effective in determining production and prices
    • Arab members of OPEC alarmed the developed world when they used the “oil weapon” during the Yom Kippur War by implementing oil embargoes and initiating the 1973 oil crisis
  25. What were the curcumstances that allowed the US to emerge as the sole superpower in 1945?

    In that capacity, how did the US attempt to shape the post war world, particularly with regard to ideology and institutions?

    What were the major international and domestic factors that acted to diminish US superiority by the late 1960s?
    • "what allowed sole power"
    • European decline directly led to US dominance and Cold War
    • US only major world power to come out of WWII with no damage to its infrastructure and actually…had an economic BOOST
    • Far enough away to not get wacked by everybody…GEO!!!!!
    • "atempt to shape the wrold"

    • ideology
    • democracy vs communism
    • with the US being the only developed country in the world that wasnt destroyed, they used this time of "ideology monopoly" to push their agenda of Empire of Liberty worldwide
    • EX)
    • Truman Doctrine
    • Caracas Decloration
    • Support of Israel

    • Institutions
    • United Nations
    • UN security council
    • US not sole power, but structurly, the US was highly influential
    • Headquarters is in New York

    • IMF/World Bank
    • Created at the Bretton Woods Conference
    • Both pop up afterwards
    • US didn't create them, but the US was and still is a major sponsor
    • US bankrolled the whole thing in the beginning
    • Only in the last 20 years did these banks get a president that was not from the US
    • US still robust, but not standing alone anymore: why?
    • US industry starts going oversees due to high governmental restrictions
    • US had a monopoly after WWII
    • Everyone else was destroyed (Japan, Europe)
    • Now, they are starting to get back on their feet and compete with the US
  26. Discuss the notion that the Cold War conflict between the US and the Soviet Union was a global competition between two versions of modernity
    • two nations trying to force their ideology, destroy the other, and spread their version of modernity after the “war”
    • Two fully formed ideologies deeply believing in their form, believing that their form should be spread into the world

    • US wanted to promote the modernity version of Empire of Liberty
    • SU wanted to promote the modernity version of Social Justice

    • Empire of Liberty
    • Tied to property and education
    • Essential component; by property, you gain autonomy
    • Property liberates you; how can you be free if you do not own your own property ???
    • Skeptical about the group
    • Power in the states or central government
    • Free trade; gov restriction should be minimal
    • Expansion vs imperialism

    • Social Justice
    • Ours is more advanced
    • You have markets, invisible hand, wealth
    • But it leads to misery, explotation, environmental degredation
    • Communism is another type of modernity
    • Better
    • Ours is communal, democratic, socially advanced
    • Emphasis on workers rights

    • 2 VERY powerful nations
    • Both wanting to promote their form of modernity
    • The 2 forms couldnt have been more different though...
    • Cold War
  27. What were the similarities in the patterns of nationalism before 1945 (mostly in Europe) and after 1945 (mostly in LA, Asia, SouthWest Asia, and Africa)?

    What factors account for the unique ways that nationalism manifested itself in the developeing world since 1945?

    In addressing the latter question, draw examples from specific nations in at least two different regions (LA, Asia, SouthWest Asia, and Africa)


    • Boxer Rebellion (before 1945)
    • Yom Kippur War (after 1945)

    • Both lost a substantial battle causing loss of nationalism
    • Both caused significant damage (mostly mental) to the same nation that beat them significantly (militarily) prior to;
    • Both eventually lost the war, but were able to cause substantial mental damage
    • BUT, both caused a rise in nationalism nonetheless

    EUROPE (before)

    ISRAEL (after)

    • both had population spikes after becoming nationalistic
    • both aquired lands after becoming nationalistic