Biology Finals

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Biology Finals
2012-04-29 23:01:18
Units 10 16

Final exam
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  1. area of retina of sharpest vision
  2. responsible for color vision. Work well in bright light
  3. area of view with less sharp vision
    Peripheral Field
  4. responsible for black and white vision. Work well dim--> bright light
  5. covered with photo-receptors
  6. near sightedness; see objects close ok, cannot see distant objects; eye is too long
  7. far-sighted= can see distant objects okay, cannot see close; eye is too short
  8. far-sighted= can see distant objects okay, cannot see close. As you age, the lens loses elasticity and cannot shape to focus on close objects.
  9. act as bug detectors
  10. contains lysozyme to kill pathogens; causes water to bead so it rolls out of ear canal
  11. sense of hearing and it is in what part of the ear
    organ of corti and it's located in the inner ear
  12. sense of balance and position and it is in what part of the ear
    statocyst and statolith; semi-circular canals; it's located in the inner ear
  13. static balance= know position in absence of movement
    statocyst and statolith
  14. dynamic balance= know position while moving
    semi-circular canals
  15. 4th century B.C.; 10 volumes= "Historia Animalium"
  16. Has ten volumes and is about the "Ladder of life"
    "Historia Animalium"
  17. Aristotle's "Historia Animalium" top two on the "ladder of life" are:
    humans and elephants
  18. 1627-1705 AD; first to use "species" like we use it today
    John Ray
  19. 1707-1778 AD; "Binomial system of Nomenclature"; Father of modern classification
    Carolus Linnaeus
  20. Binomial is two name and Nomenclature is science of naming
    "Binomial system of Nomenclature"
  21. Kingdom; Phylum; Class; Order; Family; Genera/Genus; Species
    Modern Classification Scheme
  22. Living organisms are classified with the use of
  23. Living organisms are classified with the use of diagnostic and the characteristics are ___?
    a feature shared by a group of organisms that allow it to be distinguished from a similar group
  24. a measure of the variety of organisms that live in a particular area
  25. Biodiversity= measured in 3 ways
    species biodiversity; ecosystem biodiversity; genetic biodiversity
  26. the number of different species living in an area
    species biodiversity
  27. the number of different ecosystems found in an area
    ecosystem biodiversity
  28. the number of different genes present in population found in an area
    genetic biodiversity
  29. Biodiversity is affected by
    weather and climate
  30. a measure of daily fluctuations in temperature, humidity, rainfall, etc.
  31. average daily weather factors seen over a long period= a year.
  32. Weather and climate are affected by
    global air currents; global water currents; and chemical composition of the atmosphere
  33. global air currents
    jet stream
  34. global water currents
    gulf stream
  35. chemical composition of atmosphere
    green house gases- "green house" effect and ozone layer in the atmosphere and uv light
  36. greenhouse gases
    CO2; methane; water vapor
  37. global warming=
    greenhouse gases; sun cycle; volcanos
  38. areas with living organisms that are determined by weather and climate
  39. Types of biomes
    Desert biome; Grasslands biome; Deciduous forest biome
  40. area receives less than 10 inches of rainfall per year. See plants and animals with adaptations that allow survival in dry conditions
    Desert biome
  41. get more than 10 inches of rain per year but not enough rain to support growth of trees
    Grasslands biome
  42. requires the most water
    Deciduous forest biome
  43. Four factors that affect the population size
    births (+), deaths (-), immigration (+), emigration (-)
  44. the amount of biomass that the environment can support indefinitely
    Carrying capacity
  45. allows population size to increase
    Biotic Potential
  46. Abiotic factors of biotic potential:
    adequate light, sufficient H2O, good soil, moderate temps
  47. Biotic factors of biotic potential:
    no disease or paracites, high reproduction, plentiful food; generalized niche= eat a wide variety of foods= O'possum
  48. causes population to decline
    Environmental resistance
  49. Abiotic factors of environmental resistance
    inadequate light, drought, poor soil, harsh water, hot summers
  50. Biotic factors of environmental resistance
    high rates of disease and parasites, low reproduction, inadequate food; specialized niche= Everglades kite (hawk) only eats apple snails
  51. Ecosystem trophic levels
    producers, first order consumers, second order consumers, third order consumers, decomposers
  52. green plants= can convert sun energy into chemical energy= photosynthesis; must have
  53. Herbivores= animals that eat producers
    First order consumers
  54. carnivores= animals that eat first order consumers
    Second order consumers
  55. carnivores= animals that eat second order consumers
    Third order consumers
  56. bacteria, fungi, worms= nature's recyclers= take dead organisms break down their macromolecules and allow the building blocks to re-enter the nutrient cycle of the ecosystem
  57. Relationships among trophic levels
    pyramid of numbers; pyramid of energy; pyramid of biomass
  58. In nature...
    matter is recycled over and over; there is no energy cycle
  59. Energy moves ____________ through the ecosystem.
  60. With each transfer of energy from one trophic level to another, ___ of the energy is lost because of ___________.
    90% and the second law of thermodynamics
  61. Toxin that is not easily broken down
  62. seen in simple ecosystems; unstable
    food chain
  63. complex and stable
    food web