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What operas did we study?
- L'Orfeo (Monteverdi)
- Onontea (Cesti)
- Armide (Lully)
- Hippolyte et Ancie (Rameau)
What changes occured in operas during the Baroque era?
- meaning of the aria, recitative, and arioso
- topic of operas (from mythical to historical content)
- courts only to public venues
What keyboard pieces did we study?
- Toccata No. 3 (Frescobaldi)
- Suite No. 3 in A minor (Jacquet de la Guerre)
- Vingt cinquiéme ordre (Couperin)
- Prelude & Fugue in A minor BMV 543 (JS Bach)
How did keyboard music change during the Baroque era?
- developed later than choral music
- mean-tone became equal temperament
- danses- "art dances"
- development of keyboard suites
- Jacquet de la Guerre (1st woman publish keyboard piece)
- harpsichord becomes organ
- early baroque era becomes stile brisé
What instrumental ensemble pieces did we study?
- Trio Sonata No. 3 (Corelli)
- Violin Concerto in A minor, opus 3 (Vivaldi!)
How did instrumental ensemble music change during the Baroque era?
- the sonata: da chiesa (in church) da camera (not in church)
- began using tempo markings
- forms: ritornello form
What is Monteverdi's history?
- Born in Cremona. Worked in Mantua at age 23, moved to Venice at St. Mark's cathedral to replace Gabrielli.
- His first opera wasOrfeo- librete strigio
What styles did Monteverdi write in?
madrigals (imitation, 2-5 voices, homophony, a capella, pastoral poetry) and operas (word painting, secunda practica, unprepared dissonance, chromatic mediants, monody)
What is Handel's history?
- born in Germany
- began studies in Germany
- finished studies in Italy, with Vivaldi, Corelli, and Scarlatti
- gigged in London with opera
- rest of career in London
- wrote operas for Royal Academy
What pieces did Handel handle?
- Gulio Cesare (opera)
- Saul (oratorio)
What was Handel's style?
- He hired the best singers (sopranos and castrados)
- only opera seria! Roman history, 3 acts, happy endings
- French overtures
- English oratorios
- imitation and homophony
- exit arias (da capo aria)
What is Bach's Baroque back-history?
- Mühlausen- organist - 1707-1708
- Weimar - organist - 1708-1717
- Cöthen - princes chamber music - 1717-1723
- Leipzig church music (cantatas) - 1723-1750
- Italian, German, and French music all struck a chord w/Bach
- known as performer, not composer
- called cantatas: concertos, music, dialogues
What pieces did Bach write?
- Num komm, der Heiden Heiland - cantata
- Prelude and "R"ugue in A Minor BMV 543
What styles did Bach write in?
cantatas, preludes, and fugues