Medical Micro Lab Practical - Sheet1(2).csv

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Medical Micro Lab Practical - Sheet1(2).csv
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  1. Colony Morphology Terms
    Form. View from above (overall appearance). Margin (border) surrounding the colony. Elevation.
  2. TSA plate
    General purpose media. Used to streak for isolation.
  3. MaConky (MAC)
    Selective for gram negative (G-) bacteria. Differential for lactose fermentation. Lactose fermentation will be indicated by purple pink colonies
  4. Escherichia coli
    Gram negative coccobacillus. Colony are small circular doomed colonies that are yellow in color.
  5. Staphlyococcus aureus
    Gram positive cocci in clusters. Colony are large and yellow in colory shiny. Opportunistic pathogen. Causes septicimia. skin infections. pneumonia. and endocarditis.
  6. Bacillus cereus
    Gram positive rodes in chains. Dull spreading colony
  7. Manitol Salt Agar (MSA)
    Used for isolation of halotolerant microbes such as S. aureus. Selective 7.5% NaCl. Differential is mannitol. If bacteria ferments mannitol medium turns yellow due to phenol red pH indicator.
  8. Blood agar (BA)
    Used for hemolysis types. growth of fastidious microbes. No selective agent. Differential agent usually 5% sheeps blood. An enriched media.
  9. Baird-Parker (B-P)
    Selective and differential for Staphylococcus aureus. Selective agents tellurite and glycine. Differential if tellurite is reduced forms grey/black colonies. Differential with EGG YOLK which will show a clearing around indicating proteolysis/lipase. S. aureus will appear shiny gray/black with zone of clearing possible opaque zone withing clear zone (lecthinase)
  10. MRSA media
    Used for the isolation of methicillin resistant S. aureus. Selective agent is OXACILLIN. No differential agent. Will only grow MRSA strains of S. aureus.
  11. Brain heart infusion agar (BHI)
    Used as a general purpose media. Growth for most bacteria. Not differential or selective.
  12. Staphylococcus genus
    Opportunistic pathogens. Are all catalase positive. Metabolism respiratory fermentative. Are facultative anaerobes. Are cocci .5 -1.5 um in singles. pairs. chains. irregular clusters. Most are catalase positive and oxidase negative. Found on skin mucous membrane dust water food.
  13. Micrococcus genus
    Rarely cause opportunistic infections. Metabolism is repiratory. Areobic oxygen requirements. Cocci 1-1.2 um irregular clusters tetrades packets (NEVER IN CHAINS). Catalse positive. Most are OXIDASE POSTIVE. Found in soil dust food mostly saprphytes sometimes on mammalian skin. SENSITIVE TO BACITRACIN
  14. Staphylococcus aureus metabolic tests
    Mannitol (+). NOVOBIOCIN (sensitive). BETA HEMOLYTIC. DNase (+). COAGULASE (+). Phophatase (+)
  15. Staphylococcus epidermidis metabolic test
    Mannitol (-). Novobiocin (sensitive). Hemolysis (gamma). DNase (-). Coagulase (-). PHOSPHATASE (+).
  16. Staphylococcus saprophyticus
    Mannitol ferm. (negative/variable). NOVOBIOCIN RESISTANT. Gama hemolysis. DNase negative. Coagulase negative. PHOSPHATASE NEGATIVE.
  17. Micrococcus luteus
    Pigment Yellow. Acid aerobic from glucose (negative). GELATIN HYDROLYSIS (+). Nitrate reduced to nitrates (-). OXIDASE (+).
  18. Micrococcus roseus
    Pigment production pink/orange/red. Acid (aerobic) from glucose POSTIVIE. Gelatin hydrolysis (-). NITRATE REDUCTION (+). Oxidase (-).
  19. Antiobiogram
    Conducted on Mueller-Hinton agar is used to test antibiotic susceptibility or resitance by measuring zone of inhibition.
  20. DNase
    An exoenzyme produced by some bacteria (S. aureus). A agar plate contains DNA polymers is broken down by DNase and creates nucleotides that react with dye to produce a METACHROMATIC EFFECT. Giving a PURPLE/PINK indicates a positive test.
  21. Staph latex kit
    contains very fine latex beads covered with fibrin and antibodies IgG. The coagulase will bind to fibrin and Protein A will bind to antibodies. This will show agglutination.
  22. Oxyicillin
    same as methycillin
  23. Beta-lactamase
    Exoenzymes produced by some bacteria used to break down the beta lactam ring on penicillin
  24. Streptococcus genus
    Gram positive chain in cocci. CATALASE NEGATIVE. Only fermentative. Grow in increased CO2 (not anaerobic) CAPNOPHOLIC. Cause oppoertunitic infections. Necrotizing fascitis. Sore throat. (pharyngitis). Endocarditis. Menigitis. Strep normally occuring in mouth. Are normally classified by Hemolysis and lancefield typing. Lancefield is are surages located on surface of bacteria used for identification. \
  25. Mitis-salivarius agar (Mit-Sal)
    Selective for Streptococcus and Enterococcus. Selective agents is TELLURITE is slective against Gram negatives. Differential agent is sucrose if bacteria ferment sucrose colonies turn blue. S. mitis creates small blue colonies. S. salivarius creates blue gumdrop shaped colonies. ENTEROCOCCUS SMALL BLACK COLONIES.
  26. Bile esculin agar (BEA)
    Used for the identification of Enterococcus. Selective agent is bile for enterococcus species. Differential agents Esculin will turn the media black. Also used for identification of listeria and bacteriodes.
  27. Carrot broth
    Used for isolation and enrichemnt of Group B strep. Selective agent unknown. Differential agent is starc. peptone. GBS produces pigment that turns the media brick red/organge. Used for identification of Streptococcus agalactiae from clinical specimens.
  28. MGP broth
    Differentation of vancomycin resistant enterococci. Differenetial using methyl-alpha-D glucopyranoside (MGP) if fermented yeloow color develops. E. FAECALIS AND E. FACEIUM ARE NEGATIVE. E. GALLINARUM AND E. CASSELIFAVUS ARE POSITIVE
  29. Streptococcus pyogenes
    BETA HEMOLYSIS. Bacitracian sensitive. LANCEFIELD A. PYR (+). Bile esculin (-). 6.5% NaCl (-). MB milk (-) Hippurate (-). CAMP (-)
  30. MB milk
    Used to identify Enterococcus. Will turn from a blue color to white in a postivie test. E. faecalis and E. faecium.
  31. Streptococcus agalactiae
    Weakly Beta hemolytic. BACITRACIAN RESISTANT. LANCEFIELD B. PYR (-). Bile (-). 6.5% NaCl (-). MB milk (-). HIPPURATE (+). ***CAMP (+)****. CARROT BROTH POSITIVE
  32. PYR
    Small disk place on the media and test for the presence of L-pyrolidonyl arylamidase. Used for the presumptive identification of group A ß-hemolytic streptococci Enterococcus strain. Rub bacteria on dish place on plate and let stand 3 minutes. Add PYR reagent. PINK (+).
  33. Streptococcus pneumoniae
    ALPHA HEMOLYSIS. OPTOCHIN SENSITIVE. PYR (-). Bile-Esculin (-). 6.5% Bile (-). BILE SOLUBILITY (+). MB milk (-). CAMP negative. MAKES A CAPSULE
  34. Streptococcus mitis
    ALPHA HEMOLYSIS. Optochin resistant. PYR (-). Bile-Esculin (-). 6.5% NaCl (-). Bile solubility (-). MB milk (-). CAMP (-). SMALL BLUE COLONIES ON MIT-SAL
  35. Streptococcus salivarius
    Alpha and Gamma hemolysis. Optochin resistant. PYR (-). 6.5% NaCl (-). Bile solubility (-). MB milk (-). CAMP (-). MAKE CAPSULE. LARGE BLUE GUM DROP COLONIES ON MIT-SAL
  36. Viridans
    S. mitis and S. salviaris are in this gorup.
  37. Enterococcus specific tests
    Bile esculin (black + result). MB milk reduces methyl blue to turn white (reduces milk). 6.5% NaCl Salt tolerant.
  38. Hippurate
    S. agalactiae. Uses wee tabs check to see if it hydrolyzes hippurate. Blue/purple color positive test. Inoculate sample incubate then add indicator dye and place in water bath 30 minutes
  39. Enterococcus faecalis
    gamma and beta hemolysis. Bacitracin Resistant. Optochin Resistant. LANCEFIELD TYPE D. Catlase (-). PYR (+). BILE-ESCULIN (+). 6.5% NACL (+). Bile solubility (-). MB MILK (+). Hipppurate (-). CAMP (-)
  40. Enterococcus faecium
    gamma and beta hemolysis. Bacitracin Resistant. Optochin Resistant. LANCEFIELD TYPE D. Catlase (-). PYR (+). BILE-ESCULIN (+). 6.5% NACL (+). Bile solubility (-). MB MILK (+). Hipppurate (-). CAMP (-)
  41. Distinguish between E. faecalis and E. faecium
    Fermentation of arabinose is often used. E. faecilius is negative.
  42. Literia moncytogenes chemical results
    CATALASE POSITIVE. Weakly beta hemolytic normally under colony. Small bacillus. coccobacillus. look similar to S. pneumonia. CAMP POSITIVE. MOTILITY POSITIVE. ESCULINE HYDROLYSIS. TSI REACTION A/A-. Sulfide negative. Inodole negative. Gelative negative.
  43. Mannitol Egg Yolk Agar
    Used for indentification of Bacillus species. No selective agents. Differntial agent is Mannitol for fermenation results in yellow colonies. Egg yolk hydrolyssi of lecithin results in zone of white precpitation.
  44. Erysipelothrix
    Catalase negative. Gamma or alpha hemolysis. CAMP NEGATIVE. SULFIDE POSITIVE. FORM LONG THREADS. Negative motility at room temp and body temp. Gelatin negatie. Inverted fir tree pattern. MICROAEROPHILE. Esculin hydrolysis. TSI IS K/K NO CHANGE. Strep also causes this but cause pus to form
  45. Corynebacterium
    Coryneform irregular shaped rods kind of club shaped. Aerobic or faculatative non motile CATALSE POSITIVE. Many species are diphtheroids common normal flora. C. dipthereiae is the main human pathogens. C. diptheriae. C. ulcerans. diptheroids. C. xerosis. C. pseudodipthericum.
  46. SIM agar. Sulfide-Indole-Motility
    Three biochemical tests in one medium. Used normally with Gram negative rods. Differential agents are typtophan hydrolysed to produce indole. Ferrous iron forms black precipitate if H2S is produced. Motility is indicated by a puffball around line of inoculation.
  47. Lofters media
    Grows corynebacterium diptheriae very well and will see metachromatic granuoles.
  48. Metachromatic granules
    Are inorganic molecules of phosphate. The bacteria stain blue but the granules stain a pink/red color. Found in corynebacterium.
  49. B. anthracis
    Gamma hemolytic. Mannitol fermentation Negative. LECITHINASE POSITVE. Motility negative. Penicillin susceptibility. GROUND GLASS COLONIES. MEDUSA HEAD. Large square chains on gram stain.
  50. B. cereus
    BETA HEMOLTYIC. Manitol fermentation negative. LECITHINASE POSITIVE. MOTILITY POSITIVE. PENECILLIN RESISTANT. STARCH POSITIVE. GELATIN POSITIVE. VP POSITIVE.
  51. B. subtilis
    Gamma hemolytic. MANITOL POSITIVE. Lecithinase negative. MOTILITY POSITIVE. PENICILLIN RESISTANT. STARCH POSITIVE. GELATIN POSITIVE. VP POSITIVE.
  52. B. coagulans
    Weakly Beta. MANNITOL POSITIVE. Lecithinase negative. MOTILITY POSITIVE. PENICILLIN SUSCEPTIBILITY. STARCH POSITIVE. GELATIN POSITIVE. VP NEGATIVE.
  53. B. mycoides
    BETA HEMOLYTIC. Mannitol fermentation negative. LECITHINASE POSITIVE. Motility negative. PENICLLIN RESISTANT. STARCH POSTIVE. Gelatin negative. VP negative
  54. Endospore Bacillus
    Have central endospore. BACILLUS ARE SPORE FORMERS. Spores are seen with a spore stain. The spore will be green the cell will pink. The middle of the spore will be green.
  55. Primary plating media for Corynebacterium
    Cys-Tel Agar. Cysteine tellurite agar. Selective for Corynebacterium with the tellurite. Differential with cysteine. give brown halo around colony from H2S production
  56. Cysteine Tryptic agar (CTA + sugar)
    Used for fermentation of sugars used for fastidious microoganism. Uses differential sugar fermentation to change media from red to yellow due to phenol red indicator.
  57. Diptheriods
    C. xerosis and C. diphtheriticum are normal flora that are rarely pathogenic.
  58. Reverse CAMP
    test for Phspholipase. Phospholipase if produced will inhibit the normal CAMP reaction. Inhibiting the zone of hemolysis. Found in C. ulcerans.
  59. Elek Test
    Looks for the toxin production of C. diptheriae caused by diptheria toxins.
  60. C. xerosis
    black grey colonie on Cys-Tel agar. Gamma hemolysis. Startch (-). NITRATE POSITIVE. Urease (-). PYRAZINAMIDASE POSITIVE. GLUCOSE (+). SUCROSE (+). MALTOSE (+). TREHALOSE (+). Reverse CAMP (-)
  61. Corynebacterium ulcerans
    black grey colones on Cys-Tel agar. STARCH (+). Nitrate negative. UREASE POSITIVE. Pyrazinamidase negative. GLUCOSE (+). Sucrose negative. MALTOSE POSITIVE. TREHALOSE POSITIVE. REVERSE CAMP POSITIVE. FOUND IN SKIN LESSIONS
  62. C. diphteriase v. gravis
    black grey colonies. Gamma hemolysis. STARCH POSITIVE. NITRATE POSITIVE. Urease negative. Pyrazinamidase negative. GLUCOSE POSITIVE. Sucrose negative. Maltose negative. Trehalose negative. Reverse camp negative.
  63. C. pseudodiphteriticum
    black grey colonies on Cys-tel agar. Starch (-). NITRATE POSITIVE. UREASE POSITIVE. PYRAZINAMIDASE POSITIVE. Glucose (-). Sucrose (-). Maltose (-). Trehalose (-). Reverse camp (-)
  64. PYZ
    pyrazinamidase test used for Corynebacterium. Involves a heavy innoculation in 5 drops of water then incubated. After incubation the reagent is added. A brown red/orange color is a positive test
  65. Granuole stain
    Stain with MB 2 minutes. Rinse well with water for 3-4 minutes. Will see blue cells with pink granuoles.
  66. Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ)
    Used for growth and culturing of Mycobacterium espically M. tuberculosis Selective agent is penicillin (inhibits g+) and naldixic acid (inhibits g-) and malachite green. Non differential agents. M. TUBERCULOSIS APPEARS AS BROWN GRANULAR COLONIES.
  67. Middlebrook 7H9 broth
    Liquid growth media for growing Mycobacterium. Used for drug suseptibility testing faster growth than LJ media
  68. Middlebrook 7H11 agar
    Solid growth medium for culturing Mycobacterium. Selective agent is malachite green. Grows less contamination than LJ medium. Grows faster than LJ medium
  69. Mycobacterium
    "Normally considered gram positive. Areacid-fast Gram-positive bacterium due to their lack of an outer cell membrane. All Mycobacterium species share a characteristic cell wall
  70. Runyon groups
    All species of mycobacterium that are not rapids fall into these groups. Group I photochormogens. Group II scotochromgens. Group III. non-chromogens. Group IV rapid growers. non-pigmented.
  71. Catalse test on Mycobacterium
    Is a semiquantitatie test. Uses a LJ deep and a mark is measured to show 45 mm above culture line. Then 1 ml of 15% hydrogen peroxide is added. If it goes past the 45 is strong. Less is weak. Strong reactions occur with M. chelonae. M. fortuitum M. phlei
  72. M. tuberculosis
    No pigment. Weak catalase response. Salt tolerance negative. Tween hydrolysis mostly positive. Tellurite reduction most negative. Arylsulfatase test negative. UREASE POSTIVE. NITRATE REDUCTION POSITIVE. ****NIACIN ACCUMULATION***
  73. M. chelonae
    No pigment. CATALASE STRONG. Salt variable. Tween hydrolysis negative. TELLURITE REDUCTION POSITIVE. **ARYLSULFATASE TEST POSITIVE*** Urease negative. Nitrtrate negative. Niacin negative
  74. M. fortuitum
    Pigment negative. CATALASE STRONG. SALT POSITIVE. Tween negative. TELLURITE REDUCTION POSITIVE. ARYLSULFATASE TEST POSITIVE. UREASE POSITIVE. NITRATE REDUCTION POSITIVE. Niacin accumulation negative
  75. M. smegmatis
    "Postive pigment. Catalase weak. SALT TOLERATNT POSITIVE. TWEEN HYDROLYSIS POSITIVE. TELLURITE POSITIVE. **arylsulfatase negative**. UREASE POSTIVIE. NITRATE REDUCTION POSITIVE. Negative niacin accum.
  76. M. phlei
    Pigment positive. CATLASE STRONG. SALT TOLERANCE POSTIVE. TWEEN HYDROLYSIS POSITVE. TELLURITE POSITIVE. **arylsulfatase negative** UREASE POSITIVE. NITRATE POSITIVE. Niacin accumulation negative
  77. Group I Runyon group
    Photochromgens. Increase pigmentation during expsoure to light. Example is M. gordonae. Are also slow growers
  78. Group II Runyon group
    Scotochromgens pigment will not change with exposure to light or dark. Example M. kansasii
  79. Group III Runyon group
    Non-chromgens. Do not produce pigment. Example M. nonchromogenicium

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