Psych 101

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Psych 101
2012-04-29 22:05:39

Quiz #2
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  1. Learning
    change in behavior due to experiences
  2. classical conditioning
    learning before the behavior
  3. operant learning
    learning after the behavior
  4. higher (second) order conditioning
    CS is used to reinforce further learning; CS is used as US
  5. extinction
    when a response is weakened by removing reinforcement
  6. spontaneous recovery
    return of response after extinction
  7. phobia
    irrational fear when no real danger is present
  8. conditional emotional response
    learned emotional reaction to a previously neutral stimulus
  9. vicarious learning
    learning through others experiences/reactions
  10. primary operant reinforcers
    • natural, unlearned, & rooted in biology
    • (ex: success, attn, food/water, sleep, sex)
  11. 4 partial schedules of reinforcement
    • fixed ratio
    • variable ratio
    • fixed interval
    • variable interval
  12. sensory
    the exact copies of what we just experienced, most isnt selected as important so we dont become aware of it
  13. short term memory
    with selective attn, its what we store for a short period of time
  14. long term memory
    what we dont have access to, but wen recalled it comes back to our short term memory
  15. procedural memory
    basic conditioned responses
  16. declarative memory
    facts; split into semantic or episodic
  17. semantic memory
    impersonal facts, most resistant to memory decay (ex: math, language)
  18. episodic memory
    autobiography (think episode)
  19. implicit memories
    lies outside our everyday awareness (using a keyboard)
  20. explicit memories
    experiences that are consciously brought to mind
  21. retrograde amnesia
    loss of events before a head injury
  22. antergrade amnesia
    loss of events after the head injury
  23. denotative meaning
    the exact dictionary definition
  24. connotative meaning
    subjective, personal, or emotional meaning
  25. lexigram
    a geometric word symbol
  26. covergent thinking
    one answer & ur set on finding it
  27. divergent thinking
    many possibilities, this is what envokes creative thought
  28. inductive thought
    going from specific facts or observations to general principles
  29. deductive thought
    general principles to specific situations
  30. logical thinking
    drawing conclusions on the basis of formal principles and reasoning
  31. illogical thinking
    thought that is intuitive, haphazard, or irrational
  32. fluency
    total # of solutions produced
  33. flexibility
    # of different types of solutions produced
  34. originality
    how novel or unusual solutions are
  35. intelligence
    • capacity to act purposefully
    • think rationally
    • effectively deal with the enviorment
  36. reliability tests
    • test-retest reliability
    • split-half reliability
    • equivalent forms reliability
  37. validity
    measure what it claims to measure
  38. aptitude
    capacity for learning certain abilities
  39. 5 aspects of intelligence
    • fluid reasoning
    • knowledge
    • quantative reasoning
    • visual-spatial processing
    • working memory
  40. chronological age
    age in years
  41. mental age
    mental ability displayed by those of a given age
  42. deviation IQ
    determines a persons relative standing amongst their age group
  43. mental retardation
    intellectually disabled; those with mental capacities far below average
  44. organic sources of retardation
    • birth injuries
    • fetal damage
    • metabolic disorders
    • genetic abnormaliteies
  45. multiple intelligences (8)
    • language
    • logic & math
    • visual & spatial
    • music
    • bodily kinesthetic
    • intrapersonal
    • interpersonal
    • naturalist