Social Psych Midterm PGSP

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Social Psych Midterm PGSP
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social psych PGSP midterm
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  1. social psychology
    scientific study of how ppl think, feel and behave in a social context
  2. Implied or imagined presence of other ppl
    • ppl dont have to be real or present
    • -walking alone late at night
    • -chuckling to onself about funny memory
    • -preparing for date or interview
  3. Brehm-"application of social psych to clinic practice"
    • -argued for relevance of social psych theories to psychotherapy
    • -reactance theory
    • -dissonance theory
    • -attribution theory
  4. Reactance Theory
    • Brehm
    • -persuading client
    • -minimizing reactance (resistance)
  5. Dissonance Theory
    • Brehm
    • therapeutic improvement as a means of dissonance reduction
    • ex. clients who commit to therapy under conditions of high choice with forewarning of high effort required should reduce dissonance by believing in the therapy
  6. attribution theories
    • Brehm
    • redirecting attributions as a means of changing the client's emotional experience
  7. Weary and Mirels "integrations of clinical and social psych"
    • brought social clinical interface to wider audience
    • social psych relevant not only for pyschotherapy but also for...
    • clinical assessment and decision making
    • understanding of factors contributing to development, miantenance and intensification of maladaptive behaviors
  8. How is social psych relevant to clinical psych?
    • social psych studies psychological processes that occur bw ppl
    • majority of psych d/o's influenced by life stress which often takes place in interpersonal contexts

    • psychotherapy itself is a social process
    • therapist-client relationship
    • social-cog beliefs about therapy, prognosis, etc
  9. Power of the situation
    • diff situations trigger diff goals
    • how we act depends on our goals and personality

    • subtle and profound effects
    • often don't recognize effects of situations on other ppl
    • context matters
  10. social cognition
    • how we think about and make sense of ourselves and others
    • sometimes we are accurate, sometimes not
    • emotions and motivations influence our thoughts, perceptions, and actions
  11. socio cultural forces
    • social identities (race, gender, social class, age, sexual orientation) effect how we...
    • percieve the world
    • how others percieve and act towards us
  12. connection and belonging
    • we have a need to...
    • seek acceptance and liking
    • form intimate relationships
    • be a good member of a group
  13. self-knowledge
    • want to know and understand ourselves
    • self reflective-think about ourselves a lot
    • we believe we know ourselves better than anyone
  14. Vazire & Mehl-self knowledge
    • Do others know us as well we know ourselves?
    • Ps rated degree to which they engaged in 25 behaviors
    • Close others rated Ps behaviors
    • Ps wore mic to pick up actual activity
    • Results: Others as good as Ps, close friends the best
    • Others better at certain activities like talking one on one and attending class
  15. self concept-who am I?
    • our views and beliefs about ourselves
    • traits
    • likes/dislikes
    • expectations for future
    • attitudes and beliefs
  16. know thyself is hard to do...
    • how do you feel about your relationship?
    • "good"-the more they think about it, the worse they rate their happiness
    • introspection-accessible
    • but, often not true reasons
    • lack meaningful access
    • think too much

    non-central reasons-attitude change
  17. Problems with Introspection
    • Better than Average Effect
    • -think we are better than we really are

    • Hard to predict future feelings
    • affective forecasting-"how would you feel when you get dumped?"

    Can't access nonconscious processes (implicit attitudes)
  18. where does our self concept come from?
    • 1. introspection
    • 2. influence of other ppl
    • 3. cultural perspectives
  19. 1. Introspection
    • Looking inward at one's thoughts, feelings and motivations
    • unique access to private self
    • can be inaccurate self knowledge
  20. 2. Influences of Other Ppl
    • self is relative-define ourselves using others
    • evaluate our traits and abilties by comparing others
    • ex. feel good looking around ugly ppl
  21. 3. Cultural Perspectives
    • contrasting cultural orientations
    • individualism-independence, autonomy, self reliance
    • North America, Europe

    • Collectivism-interdepence, cooperation and social harmony
    • Asia, Africa, S. America
  22. Independent view of self
    • No overlap of others on self
    • self is separate from others
    • "The only person you can count on is yourself"
    • "I enjoy being unique and diff from others"
  23. Interdependent view of self
    • Others overlap/ influence sense of self
    • "I am partly to blame if one of my family/friends fail"
    • "My happiness depends on the happiness of those around me"
  24. Collectivist cultures
    • derive happiness from status of the group
    • undermine role in group
    • modest about contributions
    • accept blame for failures
  25. Indivdualistic cultures
    • Strive for personal achievement
    • overestimate contributions to group
    • take credit for success
    • pass blae for failures (self serving bias)
  26. Self Evaluation
    • assessing where one stands and how one is doinf relative to one's goals
    • 1. self assessment
    • 2. self enhancement
    • 3. self improvement
  27. Self assessment
    • desire to have accurate info about onself
    • abilties, traits, values
    • underlies self-knowledge
    • knowing self well-->select activities or goals that are appropriate for skill level
    • foundation on which to grow or change
    • lateral social comparison
  28. Self Enhancement
    • Need to achieve and maintain a positive sense of self
    • better than average effect
    • self serving bias
    • downward social comparison
  29. Self Improvement
    • goal is to improve skills
    • education, work, leisure (athletics)
    • focus in getting better, not feeling better
    • future orientation not present
    • upward social comparison
  30. situations when motives operate
    • wanting to get better at some aspect of our lives
    • knwing how we really stand on some aspect of life
    • wanting to feel good abot ourselves

    • important situation to come (career choice, deciding to end relationship)
    • past threat or failure (poor grade in school)--> self improvement
  31. social sources of information
    • self-imrovement=upward social comparison
    • comparing with ppl better than us at something

    • self enhancement=downward social comparison
    • comparing with ppl worse than us

    • self assessment=lateral social comparison
    • comparing with ppl similiar in skill to us
  32. self esteem
    • global evaluation of self and the association of oneself with positive or negative attributes
    • high SE-indicator of psych well being and optimal functioning
    • academic performance, depression, relationship satisfaction, delinquincy, pessimism, health
  33. 4 methods for enhancing self esteem
    • self serving cognitions
    • self handicapping
    • BIRG-basking in the reflected glory of others
    • downward social comparison
  34. self serving cognitions
    • take credit for success and distance from failure
    • good grade-I'm smart, I studied hard
    • bad grade-teacher unfair, poorly written test
  35. self handicapping
    • behaviors that sabotage performance to provide an excuse for failure (ex. procrastination, drinking, not practicing)
    • often make excuses for poor performance
    • ex. computer crashed
    • sometimes make excuses for future performance
    • ex. when afraid we may fail-I'm sick, so I can't study
  36. why self handicap?
    • protects with failure and enhances SE with success
    • ex. out late with friends
    • Get D-perfect excuse
    • Get A-you're brilliant

    • Has its costs-increases risk of failure
    • ppl dont like self-handicappers
  37. BIRG
    • basking in the reflected glory of others
    • -associating with successful others
    • sports gear increases after sports team wins
  38. Medvec, Madey and Gilovich-silver medal study
    • bronz medalist happier than silver
    • direction of social comparison mattered
  39. internal SE contingency
    ex. gods love, virtue

    base SE on internal contingnecies...lower psychological distress
  40. external SE contingencies
    • higher psychological distress
    • ex. grades, appearance
  41. contingency of SE
    • extent to which we base feelings of self worth on achieving specific outcomes or matching specific standards
    • most ppl have contingent SE to some degree
    • differ in which domains we base our SE
    • feelings of global SE fluctuate depending successes/failures in the domains in which we are psychologically invested
  42. 7 SE domains of college students
    gods love, virtue, appearance, grades, approval from others, family support, competition
  43. True SE
    • noncontingent
    • associate self worth with WHO they are, not what or how they do
    • higher psychological adjustment
  44. contingent vs. true SE
    • cont=pursue goals for extrinsic reasons
    • true=pursue goals for intrinsic reasons
  45. possible selves
    • ppl's projections about what they might become,would like to become and are afraid to become
    • cognitive manifestations of enduring goals, aspirations, motives, fears and threats
    • motivate behaviors intended to achieve desired possible selves and to avoid feared ones
  46. Fryberg-study about Native Americans and possible selves
    • impact of mascots on achievement related possible selves
    • American Is wrote down what they expected to be in 1 year
    • American Indian College Fund ad was equal to the control group and higher than the Indian mascots for % of achievement related possible selves
  47. ingroups
    groups in which an individual affiliates, feels a sense of membership, belonging, identity
  48. stigma
    • an attribute or characteristic that is devalued in a particular social context
    • ex. being overweight
  49. 3 components of bias
    • stereotypes
    • prejudice
    • discrimination
  50. stereotypes
    • beliefs that associate a group of ppl with certain traits
    • ex. Arabs
  51. Prejudice
    • negative feelings about members of a group
    • ex. dislike overweight ppl
    • anger-immigrants
    • disgust-gay
    • fear-black man
  52. discrimination
    • negative behaviors directed against members of a group
    • ex. hiring, sex. harassment, social exlcusion, using slurs
  53. ABCs of bias
    • Affect-prejudice
    • Behavior-discrimination
    • Cognition-Stereotypes
  54. social identities
    • ppl are differentiated on many meaningful social dimensions
    • ex. gender, sexual orienation, SES, religion, race, political, life stage
  55. self embedded within social identities
    social identities are an extenstion of the self beyond the level of the individual..."I" becomes "we"
  56. constructing the self
    • social identities-ppls knowlesge of memberships in social groups and the emotional sig. they attach to these memberships
    • essential part of self concept
    • are normative behaviors, feelings and values associated with our various social ingroups
    • gives info abour who and we are and are not
  57. ingroup favoritism
    • ingroups are psychologically primary
    • "we" are smarter, better, etc
    • ingroup favoritism even happens in arbitrary groups
  58. outgroup homogeneity
    • ou9tgroups associated with negativity
    • not necessarily antagonistic just not positive feelings
    • stereotyping and prejudice can come from mere presence of groups
  59. pros to social identities
    group identification can buffer negative effects of discrimination on SE, well being and achievement
  60. cons to social identities
    • strong identification with ingroups can contribute to intergroup conflict and prejudice
    • can encourage rigid compliance with group's beh. norms
    • Oysterman study
  61. identity infused behavior
    • =engage in beh so a person has inclusion in ingroup
    • ex. if health promotion is identified as white or middle class, ppl of color and low SES will not see it as an ingroup activity and will be less likely to engage in health beh.
  62. optimal distinctiveness theory
    • ppl have inherent drive to identify with groups and an opposing drive for individuation
    • strike a balance by finding point of "optimal distinctiveness"=identities that simultaneously address need for affiliation and need for indivuation
  63. social identity complexity
    • each social identity gives a basis for shared identity and group membership
    • we have multiple social identities
    • ppl may share a common ingroup on one dimension, but not others
    • what matters is not only specific social groups but also how diff identities are combined
  64. Intersection
    • man who is a clinician
    • outgroup=women clinicians and men who are not clinicians
  65. Dominance
    • one primary group identification
    • other potential group identities are subordianted
    • ingroup=clinicians...then men within that circle
    • may feel closer to male clinicians than female ones
    • identidies more with female clinicians then males who are not clinicians
  66. compartmentalization
    • social identities are context or situation specific
    • at work, clinicians is relevant social identity, in other situations, gender
    • ingroup members depend on the situation
    • if both identities are relevant simultaneously, then someone from either group maybe ingroup member
  67. Merger
    • social identity is sum of one's combined group identification, across situations
    • any man (clinician or not), any clinician (male or female)=ingroup member
  68. low complexity
    • Intersection-least complex
    • reduces multiple, diverse identities to a single exclusive social identity
    • Dominance-low complexity
    • suppresses inconsistencies/diversity
  69. moderate/high complexity
    • compartmentalization-moderately complex
    • separate identities are acknowledged and differentiated but no attempt to reconcile
    • Merger-high in complexity
    • preserves differentation and integration in an inclusive social identity
  70. Biculturalism
    • acculturation of immigrants or ppl of color follows models of mutliple identities
    • identity may reflect culture of origin and/or culture of residence
    • hyphenated identities
    • cultural identity is at the intersection of ethnic and societal levels
    • ingroup is those who share ethnic heritage and residence in host society
    • ex. Mexican American
  71. Cultural dominance
    • sobordiante one identity to the other
    • assimilation to host culture OR assimiliation to culture of origin
  72. cultural compartmentalization
    • cultural ambidextrousness
    • activate different cultural identities in diff contexts; code switching
    • ex. speaking spanish at home and english at school
  73. Integrated biculturalism
    • intercultural identity-acknowledges multiple cultural identities at the same time
    • membership, values, and norms of both groups are combined and integrated
    • Mexican and American
  74. social identity complexity
    • depends on...
    • awareness of more than one ingroup categorization
    • recognition that the multiple ingroup categories dont converge
    • involves understanding what people mean when they say "I am both A and B"
    • some ppl view ingroups as having highly overlapping sets of members OR ingroups as distinct but partially overlapping
  75. identity change
    • can be disruptive and confusing
    • natural and important part of life
    • some triggered bu extenal events
    • sometimes deliberate attempt to change identity
  76. 4 main sets of conditions that foster identity change
    • 1. sociocultural and environmental change
    • 2. development growth and role changes
    • 3. acquisition and loss of abilities
    • 4. self initiated changes
  77. sociocultural and environmental changes-identity
    • changes in immediate social env
    • new environments lack struvtures thar once sustained old identity
    • ex. moving, going to college
    • ex. women's liberation mvnt
  78. developmental growth and role changes-identity
    • when important others recognize sig change in person
    • ex. coming in age (sweet 16)
    • status (new title)
    • social role (married)
    • people may suddenly be treated diff by others
    • targets may resist change but is hard to maintain initial identity
    • become less invested in maintaining it
    • sync identities with how they're being treated
    • ex. late adolesnce-big changes, becoming adult
  79. Acquisition and loss of abilities
    • process of maturing-gain new skills and lose old ones
    • gaining or losing ability-update in identity
    • helps explain why identities are turbulent early and late in life
    • gains occur in early years
    • losses occur in later years
    • a major challenge of aging is the loss of skills that were essential to ppl's sense of self
  80. Confirmation Bias
    • when evaluating a hypothesis, look for evidence that supports over evidence that contradicts it
    • seek, interpret, and create info that verifies exisiting beliefs
    • interpret ambigous events in ways that confirm exisiting
  81. snyder and Swann-confirmation bias
    • extravert condition-asked socialibility qs
    • introvert condition-asked social withdrawal qs
    • Results=those responding in extrovert condition were deemed more outgoing
  82. self fulfilling prophecy
    • type of confirmation bias
    • belief that leads to its own fulfillment
  83. rosenthal and Jacobson-self fulfilling prophecy
    • told teachers some students on verge on intelligence growth spurt
    • Randomly assigned students to this group
    • they actually performed better
    • more attention given to those students??
  84. 3 steps for self fulfilling prophecy
    • 1. Perciever's expectations (Mary thinks dave is shy)
    • 2. Perciever's behavior toward the target (mary treats dave with less warmth)
    • 3. target's behavior toward the perciever (dave responds by withdrawing)
  85. brief glance tells us...
    • age
    • gender
    • ethnicity
    • emotional status
    • gaxe direction
    • intentions
  86. 7 basic emotions
    • Anger
    • Fear
    • Disgust
    • Contempt
    • Surprise
    • Happiness
    • Sadness
  87. Personality traits and appearance
    • taller-increased income and work success
    • revealing clothes-hold rape victims more responsible
  88. snap judgments
    • faces are major source of info about others
    • make very fast intiial impressions of ppl
    • percieve traits from facial expressions
  89. willis and todorov-snap judgments
    • Ps looked at faces and rated them on attractive, aggressive, trustworthy, compentence and likeability
    • political candidate pics
    • snap judgments just the same as when Ps had unlimited time
    • good at judging attractivemess and trustworthiness
    • evolutionary basis-need to read facial expressions to see signs of danger
    • first impressions can influence later info
  90. what traits are important?
    • positive/negative
    • trustworthy or not
    • aggressive or not
    • Power
    • confident or bashful
    • dominant or submissive
  91. Influence of baby faces
    • more favorable treatment in court
    • harder time being seen as good for "adult" jobs like banking
    • larger round eyes, high eyebrows, round cheeks, large forehead
  92. influence of mature faces
    small eyes, low brows, small forehead, angular chin
  93. ambday and rosenthal-accuracy of snap judgments
    • 10 sec clips of professor lectures
    • Ps rated professor
    • correlated with student evals at end of semester
  94. Kraus and Keltner-percieving SES from a thin slice
    • high SES-low dependence on others-disengagement beh (self grooming, fisgeting with objects, doodling)
    • low SES-dependence on others-engagement beh-head nodding, laughing, ete gaze
  95. personality traits and phsycial attractiveness
    • beauty=perception of health, occupational and financial success
    • treated more positively, elicits feelings of posivity
    • confidence, assertive, kind, poise, well adjusted
    • ugly ppl=less social, altrusitic or smart
  96. phsycial attractiveness-patterns across life span
    • attrative kids-more attention and affection
    • less punishment
    • attractive adults-more sex
    • better employment
    • increased earning potential
    • less courtroom sentencing
    • longevity
  97. newborns and physical attractiveness
    newborns prefer looking at attractive faces

    kids agree with adults about which faces are attractive
  98. attractive features in women
    • large eyes, small nose and chin, full lips, cheekbones
    • hourglass figure
  99. attractive features in men
    • cheekbons, thick brow ridge, large chin, wide set smile
    • v shaped figure
  100. personality and being Overweight
    • flawed in appearance and personality
    • lazy, incompetent, boring, undisciplined, discrimination in health, work and educational settings
  101. in the eye of the beholder
    • emotion recognition is enhanced when judging ppl from own culture
    • women more accurate at recognizing emotions
    • congruent emotions more easily identified (recognizing anger when mad)
    • w/ familiar ppl, attractiveness is moderated by liking and respecting the person
  102. grant and wilkins-expertise of social perciever
    Ps no diff than CCTV operators at predicting if a crime was about to occur
  103. devlin-env. and diploma study
    • Ps looked at pics of empty therapist offices
    • Diplomas on wall=skillful, experiences, trained, authoritative, friendlier, welcoming, interested in clients
  104. social scripts
    • helps us anticipate beh and outcomes
    • ex. job interview-expect politeness
    • frat party-expect rowdiness
  105. nonverbals
    • beh that reveals feelings without words
    • facial expressions, body language, vocal cues-quivering voice, skaing hands, avoiding eye contact
    • often "leak"
  106. attribution theory
    • personal attributions-beh caused by personality
    • ex. person yelled bc they are rude

    • situational attributions-beh caused by factors in env
    • ex. person yelled bc someone insulted them
  107. covariation theory
    • peopl determine causes of beh by assessing...
    • consensus-do others act same way in same situation?
    • distinctiveness-does person act same way in other situations?
    • consistency- is person's beh similar in same situation?
  108. covariation theory in practice
    • LOW--personal attribution
    • HIGH-situational attribution (if ppl would act same way, person doesnt act that way in most situations, would cry at same movie again)
  109. cognitive heuristics
    mental shortcuts to make a judgment; rules of thumb that allow us to make quick but imperfect judgments
  110. availability heuristic
    • tendency to base judgment on how easily relevant examples come to mind
    • ex. easier to recall homicides than diabetes deaths
  111. ross and Sicoly-availability heuristic
    • asked couples to write down % of taks they each did
    • both partners overestimate own role
  112. problems with relying on availability heuristic
    • false consensus effect
    • base-rate fallacy
  113. false concensus
    • tendency to overestimate extent to which others agree with us, share our opinions, attitudes and behaviors
    • Pervasive-abortion, gun control, politics
  114. Ross-false concensus study
    • Ps told they couold choose to wear a Repent sign or not
    • then predicted what % of other Ps would wear sign
    • overestimated % of ppl who would also choose the same answer
  115. base rate fallacy
    • ignoring base rates of probabilities, focus on vivid info
    • overestimate chance of..
    • winning lotto, dying from being shot, plan crash
    • underestimate change of heart attack, strokes, diabetes
  116. representativeness heuristic
    • food labeled as 100% natural is healthy
    • fats fed only lucky charms or Quaker granola
    • Rats were healthier with lucky charms-no saturated fats
  117. primacy effect
    • early info remembered more than later info
    • order in which something is presented has powerful influence on judgment
  118. framing effects
    • order effects are a type of framing effect
    • ex. occupying army vs peacekeepers
    • 90% condom effective rate vs. 10% failure rate
  119. message framing
    • how a message is framed afffects how persuasive it is
    • imfo on risky decisions can be framed in two ways...
    • emphasizing potential gains OR losses
    • framing as gain=risk aversion
    • framing as loss=risk taking
  120. need for context
    • preexisting knowledge is needed for understanding and required for judgment
    • we have knowledge structures-info is stored in coherent configurations in which related info is stored together
  121. attention
    • attention is selective-cant focus on everything
    • schemas let us focus and ignore the rest
  122. schemas and memory
    • judgments often made based on info retrieved from memory
    • ex. Ps told lady was librarian or waitress
    • schemas helped with recall...Ps wh were told woman was waitress remembered more waitress consistent details
  123. impressions of others based on...
    • 1. general average of target person's traits
    • 2. characteristics of perciever
  124. perciever characteristics
    • pay attention to diff things
    • often we use ourselves as a yardstick
    • mood=happiness-positive impressions
    • priming
  125. priming
    • increased accessibility of a recently activated concept, object or word
    • recently uswed words or ideas come to mind easily and influence our interpretation of new information
    • priming influences interpretation of new info/impressions
  126. higgins-priming study
    • Ps primed with + or - words then read same paragraph,
    • asked to give impression of man in paragraph
    • impressions were shaped by primed words
  127. classic priming study
    • primed with words related to elderly
    • Ps walked more slowly to elevator than controls
  128. behavioral priming study
    those primed with rudeness were more likely to interupt the confederate
  129. priming-assimiliation
    • judgment converges towards the primed construct
    • priming aggressiveness-->aggressiveness and hostility
    • priming elderly--walked more slowly
  130. priming-contrast
    priming extreme exemplars-opposite of primed construct
  131. behavioral priming
    when priming a social category or a personality trait changes a person's overt behavior
  132. imitation
    percievers mimicking the observable beh of others
  133. amount of imitation-study
    • the amountof imitation in social interactions can increase or decrease as a function of goals
    • Ps given a conscious affiliation goal OR unconscious affiliation goal
    • Ps more likely to mimic behaviors of interaction partner than people without a goal to affiliate
    • situations when we have a conscious or unconscious desire to affiliate, we mimic beh of interaction partners
  134. social exclusion and imitation study
    • imitiation increases after being socially excluded
    • Ps told they'd complete two unrelated experiments
    • online ball tossing game
    • Ps were included or excluded
    • Excluded Ps mimicked beh of confederates more than included Ps
  135. Three main mechanisms that support stereotyping
    • Social categorization: Classification of people into groups based on salient attributes
    • Stereotype activation: Extent to which associated stereotypes are accessible in a given situation
    • Stereotype application: Whether this information serves as a basis of person understanding
  136. stereotypes fall into two categories
    • Warmth: Good-natured, tolerant, sincere
    • Competence: Confident, independent, intelligent, competitive
  137. Low competence
    high warmth
    pity-handicapped pl
  138. high warmth high comeptence
    admiration-women ,christians, gay men
  139. low warmth high competence
    envy-men
  140. low competence low warmth
    contemp-latinos blacks welfare
  141. stigma dimensions
    • Visibility: Degree to which stigma can be easily hidden from others
    • Controllability: Degree to which individual is seen as responsible for stigma
  142. stereotype threat
    • Concern you may confirm a negative stereotype about your group
    • ST is not an internalization of stereotypes
    • Group members don’t believe the stereotype
  143. social identity threat
    • Cues may confirm that one’s social identity will likely be a source of stigma, devaluation, or mistreatment = social identity threat
    • Social identity threat = increased vigilance
  144. situational cues-types of concerns
    • Belonging: Can I be comfortable here? Will I be accepted?Authenticity: Can I be “me” or am I representing my group?Trust and fairness: Both individual and institutional
    • Discrimination and devaluation: Will my social identity by negatively treated or disrespected?
  145. identity safety
    • If cues disconfirm likelihood that one’s social identity is likely to be negatively evaluated, vigilance decreases
    • The situation is identity-safe:
    • Contains identity-affirming cues
    • Signals to people that their social identity is affirmatively welcomed, respected, and poses no barrier for them
  146. colorblindness
    • People are all the same
    • Group differences are superficial and should be ignored or minimized
  147. multiculturalism
    • People may be different, often in positive ways
    • Differences associated with group identity should be acknowledged, valued, and included
  148. consquences of avoiding talking about race
    • Whites with black partner performed more poorly than whites with white partner
    • Asked more questions, therefore less efficient
    • Less nonverbally friendly
  149. strategic colorblindness
    • An approach adopted by some whites to avoid talking about race—or even acknowledge racial difference—in an effort to avoid the appearance of bias
    • Colorblindness ≠“racists” seeking to hide bias
    • Well-intentioned individuals who genuinely believe that colorblindness is culturally sensitive approach to intergroup contact
    • These findings indicate that this belief is often misplaced
  150. creating idenitity safety with clients
    • Orientation that reflects and values the complex identity of client
    • Recognizes multiple social identities and their potential intersections
    • Reinforces importance and value of stigmatized identities
    • Explores how specific social identities might be influencing presenting issues
    • For clients of color, talking about race/ethnicity
  151. broaching
    • Broaching behavior: A consistent and ongoing attitude of openness with a genuine commitment to continually invite the client to explore issues of diversity
    • A recognition that race may contribute to a client’s presenting problem
  152. therapist barriers to broaching
    • Race relations can be emotionally charged
    • Concern about saying something viewed as offensive
    • Not knowing when race-related conversations are relevant
    • Not knowing how to initiate discussion about race
    • Waiting until client raises race as a topic of discussion
  153. effects of broaching
    • But, when race was addressed
    • Black and white therapists perceived the discussions to have a positive effect on therapy
    • Therapists are perceived as more credible
    • Greater depth of client disclosure
    • Clients report greater willingness to return
  154. power
    • Relative control over another’s valued resources
    • Power focuses and concentrates the mind on enacting goals
  155. status
    • Status: Social respect, recognition, importance, and prestige
    • Status confers privileges: Attention, access, respect, and agenda-setting
  156. what causes powerful to stop sterotyping and pay attnetion more?
    • Norm of egalitarianism
    • Public accountability
    • Instructions to be accurate
    • Norm of fairness
  157. communal-female traits
    • Other- and group-oriented
    • Fostering relationships, sensitivity, getting along with others; interdependent
  158. agentic-male traits
    • Process of exerting power
    • Task oriented, assertive, striving for achievement; independent, self-reliant
  159. descriptive
    • Believing men and women have certain traits
    • Women are nice, nurturing
    • Men are unemotional, independent
  160. prescriptive
    • Believing men and women should have certain traits
    • Women should be gentle
    • Men should be aggressive
  161. allports intergroup contact
    • Contact between hostile groups  reduced prejudice
    • *Equal status members
    • Common goals
    • Intergroup cooperation
    • Social norms favor intergroup contact
  162. common ingroup identity model
    • Decategorization: Individuating others
    • Recategorization: Forming broader category

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