A&P Final #6 Reproductive System

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  1. gonads
    testes and ovaries- function to produce the gametes- sperm and egg(ova) and secrete reproductive hormones
  2. ducts
    transport, recieve and store gametes. extensive in the MALE
  3. accessory glands
    produce materials that support gametes in the male,

    in f are used for Lubrication for intercourse
  4. cutaneous outpouching of the abdomen of loose skin and superficial fascia
    • scrotum
    • has r and l compartments
  5. dartos fascia
    smooth muscle continous with the superficial fascia beneath the skin of the scrotum. tightens to reg temp
  6. Scrotum outside the body can allow for sperm core temp to be
    95 degress F
  7. sling like band of skeletal muscle derived from the internal ____muscle of each side of testes. comes to wrap testes
    cremaster muscle
  8. exposure to heat causes c mucles to ___

    exposure to sexual arousal or cold causes creamater to ___
    • relax
    • contract
  9. testes decentment path
    pos wall of body and descend through inguinal canals through ant abdom wall to enter scrotum at end of month 7 of fetal life
  10. tunica vaginalis
    extension of the peritoneum formed during testicular descent
  11. internal to tunica vaginalis is dense connective tissue capsule of testis=
    tunica albuginea/lobules (white coat)

    Septa of TA into 200-300 LOBULES- smaller compartments
  12. within each lobule of testes are 1-3 coiled_____ _____
    lined with spermatogenic cells in various stages of development (meiosis)
    serminferous tubles
  13. most immature cell type on outside of seminiferous tubules
  14. Spermatogenesis
    spermatogonia move away from basement membrane and enter meosis

    becoming 1' spermatocyte

    then two 2' spermatocyets with 1/2 num of chroms

    then two spermatids with monads to fertilize egg
  15. partialy engufs spermatids where it enters SPERMIOGENESIS
    sustenticular (sertoli) cells

    where it becomes and anatomicall mature sperm
    • spermatid sheds cytoplasm
    • condenses dna into a head and forms flagellum giving rise to spermatozoon
  17. released from sertoli cells as anatomically but not functionally mature cells each with 23 chroms
  18. portions of a sperm
    • head has dna and acrosome with enzymes to penetrate ovum to fertilize
    • midpeiece with mito and tail of flagellum that propels in f repro tract
  19. Hormones of brain- testicular axis
    hypothal-> Gn-RF

    ant pit->FSH & LH

    FSH->initiates spermatogensis by stimulating meosis and stimulate sertoli cells to prepare for spermatids and produce INHIBIN
  20. nests of cells located betewen seminferous tubules and response to LH by secreting _____ and other androgens
    interstitial endocrinocytes( leydig cells)
  21. Function of Testosterone and related androgens:
    • stimulate embryonic and fetal development of male primaryy sexual characteristics- sex organs
    • male secondary characteristics begining at puberty
  22. blood testosterone levels
    prior to puberty are low then reach genetically determined amount and maintained until 50 by neg feedback of testerone by LH secretion
  23. inhibin
    secreted by sertoli cells in response to FSH invloed with neg feedback control of FSH secretion and contro of the rate of spermatogenesis.
  24. sperm path out of testis
    moved by pressure gradient into straight tubules, then into network of lobules at the hilus called rete testis then efferent ductules into the ductus epididymis
  25. highly coiled tubule that lies wthin a connective sheath, coma shaped organ along the pos border of each testes
  26. functions of epididymus
    site if sperm maturation and storage site
  27. ductus vas deferens
    • at tail of epididymus
    • enters the spermatic cord and pelvic cavity
  28. spermatic cord
    • passes sup out of scrtoum into pelvic cavity through inguinal canal
    • holds vas def, testicular artery, plexus of veins, autnomic nerves, lympatic vessels, and cremasters mus
  29. obliquely placed passageway through the ant abdom wall just sup and paralel to medial half of the inguinal ligament
    inguinal canal

    oringinates as the deep inguninal ring
  30. path of sperm in pelvic cavity
    vas loopsover side and down urinary bladder ending at ampulla which is a second storage site
  31. the vas conveys sperm by ------- from the ductus epididymus toward the urethra during ------

  32. ejaculatory ducts
    pos to urinary bladder formed by union of ampula of vas with duct of seminal vesicle of that side

    recieve sperm from vas and eject them into prostatic portion of urethra just before ejaculation- EMISSION
  33. urethra
    prostatic, membraneous through to muscular(urogenital) diaphram forming the external urethral sphinctor
  34. in the penis around the urethra
    corpus spongiousum
  35. accessory glands of the male
    bublourethral glands, prostate gland, seminal vesicles
  36. Prostate gland secretes
    • lies infer to unriary bladder
    • acidic viscous fluid, calcium, clotting enxymes, serine protease
  37. seminal vesicles
    • post to base of bladder in front of rectum
    • secrete alkaline viscous fructose fluid, prostaglandins and proseminogelin(fibrin like)
  38. located on either side of membraneous urethra and secrete mucous rich prejac fluid
    bublourethral glands
  39. seminal vesicles
    3. clotting enzymes
    • 1.atp production
    • 2. promote sperm motility and stimulate musclar contractions of female tract

    3. used to coag semen after ejac
  40. prostatic fluid
    1. citiric acid
    2.clotting enzymes
    3.serine protease
    • 1. sperm motitliy
    • 2.active proseminogelin
    • 3.liqufies clotted semen after several minutes in reproductive tract
  41. functions of preejac fluid
    neutralize acidity in urethra, lubricate it for the sperm
  42. mixture of sperm and acccsory gland secretions
    • semen or seminal fluid
    • ph=7.2-7.6
    • 2.5-5 ml per ejac
    • transportation and nourishment of sperm and neutralizes acidity of male urethra and vagina
    • once ejactulated, semen coagulate then liquify 5- 2o mins later
  43. penis portions
    root, body(corpus), and glans(head)
  44. root of penis consists of
    • bulb, erectile tissue corpus spongiousum and crura which attaches underside to pelvic diaphram
    • bulb and crura enclosed within two muscles of the pelvic diaphram, the blubocavernosus, and ischiocavernosus muscles
  45. body of penis
    consists of erectile tissues each bound by tunica albuginea and permeated by bood sinuses
  46. Erectile tissues
    • corpora cavernosa are two dorsolateral masses
    • corpus spongiousum contains urethra and forms head
  47. covering the glans penis
    prepuce head of penis
  48. erection
    sexual stimulation arteries supplying the penis vasodilate and blood enter tissues and penile veins are compressed- penile arteries vaso constrict after sexual stimulation
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A&P Final #6 Reproductive System
2012-04-30 04:12:21
reproduction system anatomy physiology

A&P Final #6 Reproductive System
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