# Cartography Final

 The flashcards below were created by user ichiban2008 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. MAP SCALES Map Scale Definition defined as a ratio of map distance to earth distance. Map Scale Expression Word Statement1 inch to 1 mile Representative-Fraction1:24,000 or 1/24,000 Large Scale vs Small Scale Large Scale1:25,000 or larger Intermediate Scale1:30,000 to 1:125,000 Small Scale1:250,000 to 1:7,500,000 Large scale maps show small area but more detailed informationSmall scale maps show large area but limited detailEX)At large scale, the outline and area of a city may be shownAt small scale, that city may be shown as a dot Scale Conversion EX) 1:100,000 is equivalent to 1 centimeter to 1 kilometer EX) 1:24,000 is equivalent to 1 inch to 2,000 feet Scale determination Use of known featuresUse of lines of latitude and longitudeUse of map comparison EX)Assume that two features are 50 millimeters apart on a map of scale 1:125,000, and the same features are 100 millimeters apart of a map of unknown scale: 50 X 125,000=100 X SF SF = 50 X 125,000---------------------------100 = 62,500 Map Scale 1:62,500 COLOR THEORY Physical Property of Color Production (What gives an object its color?) the source of the light (the spectral properties of the illumination source) the objects that we are viewing (the ability of the object to reflect light at each wavelength) the eye-brain system of the viewer (the sensitivity of the cones in our eyes to each wavelength) Object mode vs. Illuminant mode Object mode – viewing reflected light (printing) Illuminant mode – viewing emitted light (graphic displays on computer screen) Spectral color vs. reflected color Visual spectrumPure spectral colors are not often seen except when white light is refracted through a prism Reflected colorThe color we see in nature and in all fabricated things, including maps, are made by combinations of reflected wavelengths. Surfaces illuminated by white light absorb different portions of the wavelengths and reflect the remainder. Color dimensions: hue, brightness and saturation Hue: is the color dimension associated with different dominant wavelengths; Brightness (or value): is the general term for howlight or dark of a color appears Saturation (or chroma): is the perceived amount ofwhite in hue relative to its brightness; Additive color theory: three primary colors Red/Green/Blue Red+Greed = YellowRed+Blue = MagentaGreen+Blue = CyanRed+Green+Blue= White Subtractive color theory: three primary colors Cyan/Yellow/Magenta Yellow+Magenta = RedYellow+Cyan = GreenMagenta+Cyan = BlueCyan+Yellow+Magenta = Black MAP DESIGN Balance All map elements need to be arranged in the map frame If map elements appear all on one side, they cause the map to “look heavy” on the right or left, or top, or bottom Contrast ????? Label Placement for point, line, area features ??????? Appropriate use of color convention Blue for rivers/streams; light blue for lakes/reservoirRed for major roadsGreen for forest/grassRed with warm and blue with cool temperature, as in climatic and ocean representations The proper selection of color relative to map content Maps showing January temperatures should not be rendered in warm hues;Deserts having sparse vegetation should not be shown in green ELEMENTS OF MAP COMPOSITION Elements of map composition TitleFigure-GroundLegendNorth ArrowScaleNeatline and BorderGraticuleInsetCredits Figure-ground The figure is the body of the map data and is part of the map referenced in ground coordinatesThe ground is the formless background of the figure Graticule A network of longitude and latitude lines on a map or chart that relates points on a map to their true locations on the earth Bertin’s visual variables ShapeSizeHueValueValue is the quality of lightness or darkness of achromatic and chromatic colors Pattern/TextureOrientation THEMATIC MAPPING A thematic map is used to display the spatial pattern of a them or attribute. Choropleth map Has its origins from GreekChoros meaning magnitudePleth meaning place a map in which data collection units are shaded with an intensity proportional to the data values associated with those units. prefers derived dataEX)population is discrete dataarea is a discrete data Population Density = Population--------------Area Population Density is derived dataDerived data meaning normalized data Proportional map On proportional maps, point symbols are scaled in proportion to the magnitude of point data Two forms:true point data- data measured at a point locationconceptual point data- data collected over an area, but data are conceived of as being located at a point Dot Map used to portray discrete dataeach dot represents a specified valueone dot = 100 people Contour Map and 3D Map ??????? Bivariate maps ???????? Authorichiban2008 ID151060 Card SetCartography Final DescriptionFinal Updated2012-05-03T00:46:12Z Show Answers