Chapter 9 Vocabulary-Psychology

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Chapter 9 Vocabulary-Psychology
2012-04-30 13:51:43
psychology gene

list of ch 9 vocab w/ definitions
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  1. Developmental Psychology
    Branch of psychology that studies how people change over their lifespan
  2. Zygote
    Single cell formed at conception from the union of the egg and sperm cells
  3. Chromosome
    A long thred like structure composed of twisted parallel strands of DNA found in cell nucleus
  4. DNA
    The double-stranded molecule that encodes genetic instructions, the chemical basis of heredity
  5. Gene
    A unit of DNA on a chromosome that encodes instructions for making a particular protein molecule, the basic unit of heredity
  6. Genotype
    The genetic makeup of an individual organism
  7. Phenotype
    The observable traits or characteristics of an organism as determined by the interaction of genetics and environmental factors
  8. Allele
  9. Human Genome
  10. Sex Chromosomes
    Chromosomes, designated as X or Y, that determine biological sex, the 23rd pair of chromosomes in humans
  11. Epigenetics
    Study of the cellular mechanisms that controll gene expression and of the ways that gene expression impacts health and behavior
  12. Prenatal Stage
    The stage of development before birth, divided into the germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods
  13. Germinal Period
    The first two weeks of prenatal development
  14. Embryonic Period
    The second period of prenatal development, extending from the third week to the eighth week
  15. Teratogens
    Harmful agents or substances that can cause malformations of defects in a embryo or fetus
  16. Stem Cells
    Undifferentiated cells that can divide and give rise to cells that can develop in any one of the bodys different cell types
  17. Fetal Period
    The third and longest period of prenatal development, extending from the ninth week until birth
  18. Temperament
    Inborn predispositions to consistently behave and react in a certain way
  19. Attachment
    The emotional bond that forms between an infant and caregivers, especially his or her parents
  20. Comprehension Vocabulary
    The words that are understood by an infant or child
  21. Production Vocabulary
    The words that an infant or child understands and can speak
  22. Gender
    The cultural, social, and psychological meanings that are associated with masculinity or femininity
  23. Gender Roles
    The behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits that are designated as either masculine or feminine in a given culture
  24. Gender Identity
    A psychological sense of being male of female
  25. Social Learning Theory Of Gender-Role Development
    The Theory that gender roles are acquired through the basic processes of learning, including reinforcement, punishment, and modeling
  26. Gender Schema Theory
    The theory that gender role development is influenced by the formation of schemas, or mental representatives, of masculinity and femininity
  27. Sensorimotor Stage
    In Piagets Theory, the first stage of cognitive development, from birth to about age 2. The period during which the infant explores the environment and acquires knowledge through sensing and manipulating objects
  28. Object Permanence
    The understanding that an object continues to exist even when it can no longer be seen
  29. Preoperational Stage
    In Piagets Theory, the second stage of cognitive development, which lasts from about age 2 to age 7, characterized by increasing use of symbols and prelogical thought processes
  30. Symbolic Thought
    The ability to use words, images, and symbols to represent to world
  31. Egocentrism
    In Piagets theory, the inability to take another persons perspective or point of view
  32. Irreversability
    In Piaget's theory, the inability to mentally reverse a sequence of events or logical operations
  33. Centration
    In Piaget's theory, the tendency to focus, or center, on only one aspect of a situation and ignore other important aspects of the situation
  34. Conservation
    In Piaget's theory, the understanding that 2 equal quantities remain equal even through the form or appearance is rearranged,as long as nothing is added or subtracted
  35. Concrete Operational Stage
    In Piaget's theory, the 3rd stage of cognitive development, which lasts from about age 7 to adolescence; characterized by the ability ti think logically about concrete objects and situations
  36. Formal Operational Stage
    In Piaget's theory, the 4th stage of cognitive development, which lasts from adolescence through adulthood; characterized by the ability to think logically about abstracgt principles and hypothetical situations
  37. Zone of Proximal Developement (ZPD)
    In Vygotsky's throry of cognitive development, the difference between what children can accomplish on their own anf what they can accomplish with the help of others that are more competent
  38. Information-Processing Model of Cognitive Development
    The model that views cognitive development as a process that is continuous over the lifespan and that studies the development of basic mental processes such as attention, memory, and problem solving
  39. Adolescence
    Transitional stage between late childhood and the beginning of adulthood, during which sexual maturity is reached
  40. Puberty
    Stage of adolescence in which an individual reaches sexual maturity and becomes physiologically capable of sexual reproduction
  41. Primary Sex Characteristics
    Sexual organs that are directly involved in reproduction, such as uterus, ovaries, penis, and testicles
  42. Secondary Sex Characteristices
    Sexual characteristics that develope during puberty and are not directly involved in reproduction but differentiate between the sexes, such as male facial hair and female breast development
  43. Adolescent Growth Spurt
    Period of accelerated growth during puberty, involving rapid increase in height and weight
  44. Menarche
    Females 1st menstrual period. whcih occurs during puberty
  45. Identity
    person's definition or description of himself, including the values, beliefs, and idealsthat guide the individuals behavior
  46. Moral Reasoning
    aspect of cognitive development that has to do with how an individual reasons about moral decisions
  47. Menopause
    Natural cessatuin of menstruatino and the end of reproductive capacity in women
  48. Activity Theory of Aging
    Psychosocial theory that life satisfaction in late adulthood is highest when people maintain the level of activity they displayed earlier in life
  49. Autoritarian Partening Style
    Parenting style in which parents are demanding and unresponsive toward their children's needs and wishes
  50. Permissive Parenting Style
    Parenting style in which parents are extremely tolerant and not demanding
  51. Authoritative Parenting Style
    Parenting style in which parentsset clear standardsfor their children's behavior but are also responsive to their children's needs and wishes
  52. Induction
    Discipline technique that combines parental control with explaining why a behavior is prohibited
  53. Mary Ainsworth
  54. Renee Baillargeon
  55. Sandra L. Bem
  56. Noam Chomsky
  57. Erik Erikson
  58. Lawrence Kohlberg
  59. Jean Piaget
  60. Lev Vygotsky
  61. Erikson's 8 Stages
    • Trust vs Mistrust
    • Autonomy vs Doubt
    • Initiative vs Guilt
    • Identity vs Role Confusion
    • Industry vs Inferiority
    • Intimacy vs Isolation
    • Generativity vs Stagnation
    • Ego Integrity vs Despair