Fluid and Electrolytes II

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  1. What is the normal value for K+?
    3.5-5.0 mEq/L
  2. What are two things that cause intracellular shifting which can lead to hypokalemia?
    • Metabolic alkalosis
    • Drugs
    • Total body deficit: Poor dietary intake of potassium
    • Excessive loss: extra-renal, renal
  3. What drugs can cause hypokalemia due to intracellular shifting?
    • Beta-2 agonists (albuterol)
    • Theophylline
    • Insulin
  4. What are extra-renal losses that can cause hypokalemia?
    • Diarrhea
    • Vomiting
  5. What are drugs that can cause renal loss of K+?
    • Diuretics
    • Amphotericin
  6. What electrolyte disorder can contribute to hypokalemia?
    Hypomagnesemia
  7. What is the most common clinical presentation of hypokalemia?
    Cardiovascular
  8. What is the clinical presentation of hypokalemia?
    • Muscle cramping
    • Impaired muscle contraction
    • EKG changes: bradycardia, ST segment depression or flattening
    • Cardiac arrhythmias: heart block, v. fib
  9. What levels are classified as mild hypokalemia?
    3.0-3.5 mEq/L
  10. What levels are classified as moderate to severe hypokalemia?
    < 3.0 mEq/L
  11. How would you treat mild hypokalemia?
    Oral potassium supplement: Potassium Cl tablets, powders
  12. What limits the amount of oral potassium that can be given at a time?
    GI upset with high doses
  13. What is the highest amount of PO potassium that can be given at one time to decrease GI upset?
    20 mEq per dose
Author:
rclee06
ID:
151138
Card Set:
Fluid and Electrolytes II
Updated:
2012-04-30 17:06:13
Tags:
wusop
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Description:
Renal
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