Fluid and Electrolytes II
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What is the normal value for K+?
What are two things that cause intracellular shifting which can lead to hypokalemia?
- Metabolic alkalosis
- Total body deficit: Poor dietary intake of potassium
- Excessive loss: extra-renal, renal
What drugs can cause hypokalemia due to intracellular shifting?
- Beta-2 agonists (albuterol)
What are extra-renal losses that can cause hypokalemia?
What are drugs that can cause renal loss of K+?
What electrolyte disorder can contribute to hypokalemia?
What is the most common clinical presentation of hypokalemia?
What is the clinical presentation of hypokalemia?
- Muscle cramping
- Impaired muscle contraction
- EKG changes: bradycardia, ST segment depression or flattening
- Cardiac arrhythmias: heart block, v. fib
What levels are classified as mild hypokalemia?
What levels are classified as moderate to severe hypokalemia?
< 3.0 mEq/L
How would you treat mild hypokalemia?
Oral potassium supplement: Potassium Cl tablets, powders
What limits the amount of oral potassium that can be given at a time?
GI upset with high doses
What is the highest amount of PO potassium that can be given at one time to decrease GI upset?
20 mEq per dose
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