bio loco.txt

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bio loco.txt
2010-04-18 21:16:55

Bio: locomotion (muslce + skeletal)
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  1. Locomotion
    movement from one place to another
  2. Sessile
    • organism that does not move
    • ex: sponge
  3. Flagella
    • tail
    • ex: euglena
  4. Cilia
    • tiny flapping hairs
    • ex: paramecium
  5. Pseudopods
    • false feet, extension of cytoplasm
    • ex: ameba
  6. How does an earthworm crawl?
    by peristalsis
  7. Setae
    "anchors" in earthworm
  8. 3 major functions of the skeleton
    • support
    • movement
    • protection of internal organs
  9. Hydrostatic skeleton
    • consists of fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment
    • ex: earthworm, hydra, jellyfish
  10. Exoskeleton
    • rigid external skeleton
    • usually made of chitin
    • hard or leathery
    • ex: insects, crabs, clams
  11. Endoskeleton
    • cartilage or a combination of cartilage + bone
    • ex: vertebrates
  12. Axial skeleton
    supports the axis (trunk) of body
  13. axis (trunk) of body
    skull, backbone, rib cage
  14. Appendicular skeleton
    • supports the paired appendages
    • shoulder girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, lower limbs
  15. joints
    provide flexibility
  16. What covers the bones?
    sheet of fibrous connective tissue
  17. What cushions joints?
  18. Bone cells live in a matrix of...?
    ...flexible protein fibers and hard calcium salts
  19. Protein fibers resist __.
  20. Calcium salts resist __.
  21. Yellow marrow
    central cavity of bone; stores fat
  22. Red marrow
    spongy bone; produces blood cells
  23. Tendons
    connect muscles to bone
  24. Ligaments
    connect bone to bone
  25. Smooth (Visceral) muscle
    involuntary; digestive system
  26. Cardiac muscle
  27. Striated (skeletal) muscle
    voluntary; biceps, triceps
  28. Muscle Fiber
    individual muscle cell
  29. sarcolemma
    plasma membrane enclosing the muscle fiber
  30. sarcoplasm
    equivalent of cytoplasm in a muscle cell
  31. T-tubules
    in the sarcoplasm, they allow transport of substances throughout the muscle fiber
  32. sarcoplasmic reticulum
    (muscle cell) stores calcium
  33. What are the myofibrils made up of?
  34. sarcomeres
    the smallest functional units of a muscle
  35. what are sarcomeres composed of?
    filaments of myosin and actin, which are responsible for muscle contraction
  36. myosin
    thick filament with a globular head at one end
  37. actin filament
    composed of actin, tropomyasin, + troponin is attached to a Z disk
  38. Arthritis
    inflammation of the joints
  39. Osteoporosis
    bones become brittle
  40. Fracture
    break in bone or cartilage
  41. sprain
    injury to a ligament that results from overuse or trauma
  42. strain
    muscle or tendon stretching or tearing
  43. contusion
    black + blue
  44. tendonitis
    inflammation of the tendons
  45. Where is cartilage found in humans?
    nose, ears, trachea, at the end of bones
  46. joints
    make movement of the skeleton possible
  47. Hinge joints
    • can move back and forth
    • ex: elbow, knee
  48. Ball-and-socket joints
    • circular movements
    • ex: shoulder, hip
  49. pivot joint
    • can move in a half circle
    • ex: neck
  50. Immovable joint
    bones of the skull