Epidemiology

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kaytechiyoko
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151187
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Epidemiology
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2012-05-11 15:45:53
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epidemiology
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epidemiology
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  1. A pandemic is an epidemic occurring worldwide or crossing international boundaries
    true
  2. epidemiology is an experimental science that uses human subjects
    false
  3. contact with a disease causing factor or the amount of the factor that affects a group of individuals is referred to as an exposure
    true
  4. a population is defined as all of the inhabitants of a given country or area considered together
    true
  5. it is NOT possible for a single case of a disease to represent an epidemic
    false
  6. which of the following is considered a key characteristic of epidemiology
    all of the above, distribution, population focus, quantification
  7. illness due to a specific disease or health condition is known as
    morbidity
  8. any factor that brings about change in a health condition or other defined characteristic is known as
    determinant
  9. the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness, specific health behavior, or other health related events clearly in excess of normal expectancy is known as an
    epidemic
  10. which of the following is NOT considered a use of epidemiology
    to provide healthcare services to specific individuals
  11. descriptive epidemiology refers to studies that are concerned with characterizing the amount and distribution of health and disease within a population
    true
  12. a method for providing quantitative measurements of risks to health is known as
    risk assessment
  13. epidemilogy searches for associations between exposures and
    health outcomes
  14. the term epidemiologic transition describges a shift in the patterns of morbidity and mortality from causes related primarily to chronic diseases to causes associated with infectious diseases
    false
  15. operations research illustrates which of the following uses epidemiology
    health services use
  16. a stage that takes place during the early phases of pathogenesis and includes activities that limit the profression of disease
    secondary prevention
  17. the probability that an event will occur-an individual will become ill or die within a stated period of time or by a certain age-is known as
    risk
  18. which of the following disease outbreaks occurred between 1346 and 1352 and claimed up to one third of the population of europe
    plague
  19. alexander fleming discovered the antimicrobial properties of penicillium notatum
    true
  20. john snow is said to be the first to employ quantitative methods to describe population vital statistics
    false
  21. working during the renaissance, paracelsus was one of the founder of the field of toxicology
    true
  22. the english anesthesiologist who linked cholera outbreaks to contaminated water and innovated several of the key epidemiologic methods that remain valid and in use today was
    john snow
  23. the physician who determined that a human disease was caused by a specific living organism and proceeded to develop four postulates to demonstrate the associateion between a microorganism and a disease was
    robert koch
  24. in a ratio, the numerator and denominator do not necessarily have a specific relationship
    true
  25. all of the following are considered ratios except
    time
  26. epidemiologic measure provide the following types of information
    • all of the above:
    • strength of relationship between exposure and disease, association between exposure and disease, frequency of disease or condition.
  27. what is one of the first steps in presenting data after they have been reviewed for accuracy and completeness
    count and tabulate cases
  28. those members of the population who are capable of developing a disease or condition are known as
    the population at risk
  29. comparisons between populations that differ in size can be accomplished directly by using frequency or prevalence data
    false
  30. prevalence measures do not aid in
    determining the risk of disease
  31. which factors can decrease an observed prevalence
    decrease in incidence, improved cure rates of disease
  32. the number of deaths due to a disease that occur among persons who are afflicted with the disease is known as the
    case fatality rate
  33. adjusted rates pertain only to mortality ratres
    false
  34. if a equals the number of deaths in 2009 and b equals the population at the midpoint of 2009 and c equals the number of persons aged 15-24, then crude death rate per 100,000 population qould be
    (A/B) x 100,000
  35. On May 1, 2010, the number of residents of Oklahoma who had been diagnosed with asthma at any time during their life was A. the population on june 30, 2010, was B. during the same year, the number of new cases of asthma was C. the 2010 incidence rate for asthma (per 100,000) would abe expressed as
    (C/B) x 100,000
  36. using the same data from question 35, the point prevalence of ashma on may 1 (percent), would be expressed as
    (A/B) x 100
  37. Representativeness, or external validity, refers to the generalizability of the findings to the population from which the data have beent aken
    true
  38. there are no written laws or regulations requiring physicians and other health care providers to report cases of disease to heath authorities.
    false
  39. the us bureau of the census provides information that is useful for defining the numberator in rates
    false
  40. in the us, mortality data have a high degree of completeness
    true
  41. which of the following sources could be used for determining life expectancy
    vital statistics cooperative program
  42. the BRFSS
    collects data monthly, is a state based system, focuses on personal health behaviors
  43. monitoring cancer trends in the us population over time is a major application of
    registries
  44. the systematic and continuous gathering of information about the occurrence of disease and other health phenomena is known as
    public health surveillance
  45. using health related data that precede diagnosis and signal a sufficient probability of a case or an outbreak to warrant further public health response is known as
    syndromic surveillance
  46. at the top of the asthma surveillance pyramid is
    mortality
  47. birth statistics include statistics on both live births and fetal deaths
    true
  48. the number of live births reported in an area during a given time interval divided by the number of women aged 15-44 is known as the
    general fertility rate
  49. studies of the effects of exposure to teratogens have used data from
    birth certificates
  50. descriptive epidemiology provides information for
    all of the above: evaluating health sevices, conducting additional research, targeting interventions
  51. one objective of descriptive epidemiology is to monitor known diseases as well as identify emerging problems
    true
  52. in epidemilogy, person variables include
    socioeconomic status, race
  53. for both males and females, waht type of cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality
    lung and bronchus cancer
  54. differences in the occurrence of diseases and adverse health conditions in the population are known as
    health disparities
  55. urban diseases and causes of mortaility are more likely to be those spread by
    both person to person contact and crowding
  56. the term that indicates cases of disease that occur in a specific geographic region is
    spatial clutstering
  57. increases and decreases in the fewquency of a disease within a year or orver a period of several years are known as
    cyclic trends
  58. gradual changes in the frequency of diseases over long periods refer to
    secular trends
  59. what factors may be considered when measuring socioeconomic status
    all the above: income level, occupation type, education level
  60. the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS) is an example of an ongoing cross sectional study
    true
  61. those who occupy the highest socioeconomic positions have excesses of morbidity and mortality from various causes
    false
  62. assignment of some individuals to a particular racial classification on the basis of observed characteristics may be difficult
    true
  63. the closer the points lie on a scatter plot, with respect to the straight line of best fit through them, the weaker the association between the variables
    false
  64. examples of continuous variables are height and weight
    true
  65. a graphic plotting of the distribution of cases by time of onset is an
    epidemic curve
  66. when the value of one variable increases and the value of another variable decreases, the association is
    negative
  67. the lowest dose at which a particular response occurs is known as the
    threshold
  68. the time period between initial exposure and a measureable response is known as
    latency
  69. a multimodal curve is one that has several peaks in the frequency of a condition
    true
  70. the overriding question that epidemiologists ask is whether a prticular exposure is casually associated with a given outcome
    true
  71. for which of the following criteria do epidemiologists need to observe the cause befor the effect
    temporality
  72. a range of values that which a certain degree of probability contain the population parameter is known as a
    confidence interval estimate
  73. the ability of a study to demonstrate an association if one exists is known as
    power
  74. with respect to derivation of hypotheses, a type of association in which the frequency of an outcome increases with the frequency of exposure to a factor is known as the
    method of concomitant variation
  75. the web of causation model specifies a type of casual relationship that is
    multifactoral
  76. the hawthorne effect is a bias that results from participants' knowledge of being in a study
    true
  77. confounding means that the effect of an exposure on an outcome has been distorted by an extraneous factor that has entered into the exposure disease association
    true
  78. a case control study can examine only a single outcome or a limited set of outcomes
    true
  79. an intervention designed for the purpose of educational and behavioral changes at the population level is a community intervention
    true
  80. random assignment of subjects to study groups helps to control for
    biases due to confounding
  81. which factors distinguish study designs from one another
    all of the above: data collection methods, unit of observation, timing of data collection
  82. groups that are selected for an ecologic study can include
    all of the above: all cause mortality, occupational injuries, breast cancer mortality.
  83. groups that are slected for an ecologic study might be residents of a particular
    al of the above: state, county, census tract
  84. an erroneous inference that may occur because an association observed between variables on an aggregate level does not necessarily reflect the association at an individual level is known as an
    ecological fallacy
  85. used in case control studies, a type of indirect measure of the association between frequency of exposure and frequency of outcome is known as the
    odds ratio
  86. all of the following are disadvantages of case control studies except
    exposures can be miscalssified
  87. all of the following are disadvantages of case control studies except
    can be used to study low prevalence conditions
  88. subjects are classified according to their exposure to a factor of interest and then are observed over time to document the incidence of disease in what type of study
    prospective cohort study
  89. the ratio of the incidence rate of a disease in an exposed group to the incidence rate of the disease in a nonexposed group is the
    relative risk
  90. randomized controlled trials include
    all of the above: prophylactic trials, therapeutic trials, clinical trials
  91. randomized controlled trials contain which of the following components
    all of the above: rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria, blinding or masking to prevent bias, comparable measurement of outcomes in treatment and control conditions
  92. laws and regulations are developed as methods of policy implementation
    true
  93. a weakness of exposure assessment is that high quality data on exposures are often unavailable
    true
  94. screening tests need to demonstrate both reliability and validity
    true
  95. reliability is synonymous with accuracy, whereas validity is synonymous with precision
    false
  96. although a measure that is reliable can be invalid, it is never possible for a measure that is valid to be unreliable
    false
  97. the likelihood of experiencing an adverse effect is called a
    risk
  98. a plan, or course of action, as of a government, political party, or business, intended to influence and determine decisions, actions and other matters is known as
    policy
  99. a procedure that contrasts the costs and health effects of an intervention is a
    cost effective analysis
  100. which of the following is not included in the policy cycle
    hazard identification
  101. a group of persons working on behalf of or strongly supporting a particular cause, such as an item of legistlation, an industry, or a special segment of society is known as
    interest group
  102. individuals who are involved in policy formulation, including members of the legislature citizens, lobbyists and advocacy group representatives are known as
    policy actors
  103. the adoption of health related policies, laws, and programs that are supported by empirical data refers to
    evidence based public health
  104. the process for identifying adverse consequences and their associated probability is known as
    risk assessment
  105. the relationship between the amount of exposure and the occurrence of the unwanted health effects refers to
    dose response assessment
  106. when referring to a toxic substance, exposure assessment must take into account
    all of the above: where the exposure occurs, how much exposure occurs, how the substance is absorbed by the body.
  107. which of the following involves the formal adoption of the policies, programs, and procedures that are designed to protect society from public health hazards
    policy establishment
  108. the ability of a screening test to identify correctly all screened individuals who actually have the disease refers to
    sensitivity
  109. the ability of a test to identify only non diseased individuals who actually do not have the disease refers to
    specificity
  110. the ability of a measuring instrument to give consistent results in repeated trials is known as
    reliability
  111. a definitive diagnosis that has been determined by biopsy, surgery, autopsy, or other methods and has been accepted as the standard is known as
    gold standard
  112. active immunity is acquired from antibodies produced by another person or animal
    false
  113. a reservoir can be human beings, animls, insects, soils, and or plants
    true
  114. the entry and development or multiplication of an infectious agent in the body of persons or animals is known as
    an infection
  115. the severity of a disease produced by an infectious agent is referred to as
    virulence
  116. the first case of a disease to come to the attention of authorities is the
    index case
  117. the resistance of an entire community to an infectious agent as a result of the immunity of a large proportion of individuals in that community to the agent is known as
    herd immunity
  118. examples of infections caused by indirect transmission of diease agents include
    all of the above: passive immunity, herd immunity, active immunity.
  119. an inanimate object that carries infectious disease agents is a
    fomite
  120. an animate, living insect or animal that is involved with the transmission of disease agents is a
    vector
  121. the likely transmission of SARS during at 2003 flight to beijing is throught to have been an
    airborne infection
  122. foodborne illnesses can be largely prevented by
    washing hands and surfaces where food is prepared
  123. examples of zoonotic diseases include
    rabies and anthrax, but not measles
  124. determination of the incubation period for a disease outbreak helps to
    identify possible infectious agents
  125. smoking around children increases the risk for sudden infant death syndrome
    true
  126. meth is the illicit drug that is most commonly used among all persons aged 12 or older
    false
  127. lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for men, while cervical cancer is the number one for women in the US
    false
  128. chronic strains are stressful life events that are sustained over a long period of time
    true
  129. in epidemiology, social support refers to help received from family members only
    false
  130. posttraumatic stress disorder among veterans is linked with increased levels of both health problems and healthcare utilization
    true
  131. the study of the social distribution of and social determinant of states of health is
    social epidemiology
  132. the study of the roles of consumption of high fat foods with sedentary lifestyles in health is the domain of
    behavioral epidemiology
  133. the choice of behavioral factors that affect how we live is known as
    lifestyle
  134. a physical, chemical, or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension and may be a factor in disease causation is
    stress
  135. which of the following health effects are studied in relation to stress
    all of the above: substance abuse, chronic diseases, impaired immune function
  136. techniques for managing or removing sources of stress are known as
    coping skills
  137. life events that are sustained over a long period of time are known as
    chronic strains
  138. which of the following is an adverse health outcome associated with cigarette smoking
    all of the above: coronary heart disease, stroke, lung disease
  139. the involuntary breathing of cigarette smoke by nonsmokers in an environment where there are cigarette smokers present is known as
    all of the above: passive smoking, secondhand exposure to cigarette smoke, sidestream exposure to cigarette smoke
  140. a pattern of drinking that results in harm to one's health, interpersonal relationships, or ability to work is known as
    alcohol abuse
  141. alcohol consumption by underaged persons is associated with which of the following consequences
    problems at school
  142. which of the following health problems are associated with binge drinking among college students
    all of the above: violence, sexually transmitted diseases, unintentional injuries
  143. severe tooth decay and loss of teeth occur most commonly among
    methamphetamine users
  144. the study of the occurrence of major depressive episodes in the population is one of the concerns of
    psychiatric epidemiology
  145. the lifetime prevalence of major depressive episodes among us adults aged 17-39 years is higher among men than women
    false
  146. an anxiety disorder that some people develop after seeing orl iving through an event that caused or threatened serious harm or death is known as
    posttraumatic stress disorder
  147. a condition that impairs functioning in the social, communication, and behavioral domains is known as
    autism
  148. mood disorders include which of the following
    all of the above: dysthymia, any bipolar disorder, major depressive episodes
  149. the co-occurrence of two or more mental disorders is known as
    psychiatric comorbidity
  150. in epidemiology, overweight means BMI=30 or more
    false
  151. alpha radiation is non penetrating and therefore
    it is dangerous when ingested or inhaled and localizes in certain tissues
  152. the vector for the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the southwestern united states is
    rodents
  153. a measure of the absorbed dose of radiation is
    the rad or gray
  154. of the following routes of exposure, which one has the most rapid effect?
    intravenous
  155. the infectious agent for plague is a
    bacterium
  156. the most dangerous health effect linked to cell phone use is
    traffic accidents
  157. the most deadly form of malaria is caused by
    p. falciparum
  158. DDT has been found to
    accumulate in the tissues of many animals and persist in the environment
  159. bodily injury from radiation depends on
    all of the above: exposure dose (rems), the cumulative effects of exposure, whether the whole body or part of the body is exposed, individual susceptibility
  160. the type of fish that has not been identified as having potentially dangerous levels of mercury is
    salmon
  161. examples of disease vectors are
    all of the above: rats and mice, mosquitoes, ticks, sand flies
  162. in the western united states, the natural reservoir for plague is
    ground squirrels
  163. for fetuses, infants, and children, the hazards of heavy metals include
    all of the above: impairment of physical and mental development, damage to internal organs, brain damage, some forms of cancer
  164. the superfund was provided for by which of the following acts
    CERCLA
  165. which of the following is untrue
    chemical disease agents are solely the product of man's actions in the biosphere.
  166. which of the following statements about anthrax is untrue
    the inhalation form is untreatable
  167. the most effective protection of the population against the risks of man made radiation exposure is to
    limit exposure to cases where the benefits outweigh the risks
  168. the symptoms of long term exposure to lower levels of toxic metals include
    chronic illness effects
  169. match the pesticide with the group to which it belongs
    sevin
    carbamate
  170. match the pesticide with the group to which it belongs
    chlordane
    chlorinated hydrocarbon
  171. match the pesticide with the group to which it belongs
    diazinon
    organophosphate
  172. match the pesticide with the group to which it belongs
    pyrethrin
    naturally occuring substance
  173. match the pesticide with the group to which it belongs
    metam sodium
    carbamate
  174. used in cohort studies, the relative risk is a measure of the strength of association between a possible risk factor and a disease
    true
  175. an event that became a symbol for the anti-nuclear movement was
    the three mile island accident
  176. which statement about dioxins is untrue
    they are never produced in the natural environment
  177. which of the following metals is not classified as a major toxic metal with multiple effects
    silver
  178. which of the following outcomes is not usually associated with world population growth
    prosperity
  179. the concept of environmental justice specifies that
    all people must receive fair treatment in the enforcement of environmental laws
  180. methods for transmission of zoonotic pathogens include
    all of the above: contact with the skin, bite or scratch of an animal, direction inhalation, ingestion of contaminated foods.
  181. lead exposure can arise from
    all of the above: lead paint used in homes, certain types of pottery, lead dusts brought home from work, tap water from soldered pipes.
  182. bioaccumulation of heavy metals is a particular hazard associated with
    mercury
  183. which of the following forms of radiation can only penetrate up to a 2 cm layer of skin tissue
    beta particles
  184. one of the differences between Lyme disease and rocky mountain spotted fever is that
    lyme disease is caused by a bacterium and rocky mountain spotted fever is caused by a rickettsial agent
  185. erin brockovich was a successful advocate against groundwater pollution from
    chromium
  186. the poisonous substance in amanita phalloides is an example of a
    toxin
  187. the risk of acquiring a given disease during a time period is best determined by
    the incidence rate for that disease in a given period of time
  188. substances on the national priorities list have the following characteristics
    all of the above: they have known or suspected toxicity, they have potential for human exposure, they appear frequently in uncontrolled or abandoned waste sites, they are scheduled for possible remediation under superfund
  189. which of the following is not classified as an arboviral disease
    none of the above: west nile virus, tick borne viral encephalitis, japanese encephalitis, st. louis encephalitis
  190. in what sense is influenza a zoonic disease
    it has animal reservoirs, especially birds and swine
  191. sources of nonionizing radiation include
    all of the above: radiation from power lines, radio waves, infrared radiation, visible light radiation
  192. minimata disease was associated with ingestion of seafoods tainted with
    mercury
  193. the natural population replacement fertility rate is estimated to be
    2.1 births per woman
  194. one of the concerns that surrounded the use of agent orange was that it
    contained very small amounts of dioxin
  195. the epa standard for the amount of arsenic permitted in drinking water is
    10 micrograms per liter
  196. a measure of radiation dose related to biological effect is
    the rem or sievert
  197. the term "hydrophobia" is also known as
    rabies
  198. polychlorinated biphenyls are
    persistent in the environment
  199. concerns regarding pesticide use include
    all of the above: potential harm to agricultural workers, undesirable effects upon cattle, drift into schools and homes, unintentional killing of pets
  200. pesticides are
    none of the above: always highly toxic to humans, all synthetic chemicals, always the best weapon against insect pests.
  201. methods for the control of mosquito borne diseases include
    all of the above: monitoring the presence of viruses in seninel chickens and birds, removing standing water around the home, use of mosquito eating fish, wearing long clothing
  202. the limitations of environmental epidemiology include the fact that
    all of the above: accurate assessment of exposure is difficult, environmentally associated diseases often have low incidence and prevalence, long latency periods often occur between initial exposures and disease outcomes.
  203. agent orange is an example of a
    herbicide
  204. the portion of the optical spectrum that has been most closely associated with adverse human health effects is
    UVB
  205. the amount of exposure to radiation that a person receives is not affected by
    size or weight of the radioactive source
  206. identify the correct fact about rabies
    post exposure prophylaxis has prevented human rabies successfully
  207. the effects of rapid growth of the world's population include
    all of the above: urbanization, overtaxing carrying capacity, food insecurity
  208. which of the following statemetns about heavy metals is true
    their specific gravity exceeds that of water by five or more times
  209. a major concen of exposure to extremely low frequency radiation has been
    childhood leukemia and brain cancers
  210. lindane, mirex, and DDT all belong to a group of pesticides called
    chlorinated hydrocarbons
  211. the causative agent for leishmaniasis is a
    protozoan
  212. an ecologic study is one that examines individual cases as the unit of analysis
    false
  213. the research of muzaffer aksoy showed an association between leukemia and
    benzene
  214. the definition of emerging zoonoses covers
    both new and perviously known agents, appearance of agents in regions not usually affected.
  215. diffuse and spotted melanosis is associated with ingestion of
    arsenic
  216. environmental risk transition is most likely to be characterized by
    control of household risks and creation of a new set of problems
  217. the estimated global burden of disease linked to environmental sources is
    25-33%
  218. a measure used to describe the amount of radioactivity in a sample of material is
    the curie or becquerel
  219. itai-itai disease was a form of poisoning associated with ingestion of
    cadmium
  220. the effects of ionizing radiation include
    all of the above: formation of radionuclides, changes in DNA molecules, formation of ion pairs in exposed atoms, removal of tightly bound electrons from atoms
  221. the health effects of exposure to dioxins include
    all of the above: chloracne, skin rashes, liver damage, endocrine effects
  222. identify the incorrect statement
    alpha and beta particles pose little or no hazard to human health
  223. aluminum has been studied as a factor that may be linked to
    alzheimer's disease
  224. low dietary levels of copper may be associated with
    deficiency
  225. A human can survive longer without food than without water
    true
  226. in the united states, the average person uses about 400 gallons of water per day.
    false
  227. production of one barrel of beer requires 1500 gallons of water
    true
  228. about 90% of the world lacks safe drinking water
    false
  229. drinking water treatment involves all of the following except
    removal of all dissolved chemicals
  230. a thermal inversion causes
    greater concentration of pollutants
  231. the worldwide death toll from outdoor air pollution has been estimated to range up to approximately
    600,000/year
  232. a major contributor to acid rain is
    SO2
  233. which of the following is an example of a known carcinogen that is found in urban air
    VOCs
  234. the main difference between sick building syndrome and building related illness is
    • that SBS is temporary and BRI is a diagnosable illness
    • and BRI can be related to specific pollutants and SBS cannot.
  235. ]food additives are used to achieve all the following except keep food free from
    rodent filth
  236. irradiation as a method of food preservation is
    best for many types of meat and some fruit
  237. which of the following is an interpretation of the delaney clause
    carcinogenic chemicals are not permitted in food in any amounts
  238. the most favored method for waste management is
    source reduction
  239. which of the following is inappropriate for composting
    fats, oils, grease
  240. one of the most frequently recycled materials is used
    automobile batteries
  241. paper contributes the following percentage of the total municipal solid waste stream
    30-40%
  242. a product (that could be used as fuel) of anaerobic decomposition of garbage in a landfill is
    methane
  243. HAV is a
    virus
  244. T. spiralis is a
    worm
  245. BSE is a
    prion
  246. c. jejuni is a
    bacterium

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