Mem and Cog FINAL

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  1. organized general knowledge structures about commonly experiencedaspects of life
  2. Herman Ebbinghaus used these to study memory in the absence of any priorknowledge that could influence memory (2 words)
    nonsense syllable
  3. you forget the most at the beginning after the info was learned then the forgetting wanes negatively
    forgetting curve
  4. occurs with
    continued practice of to-beremembered info after it can be perfectly recalled
  5. easier to
    relearn information if you’ve already learned it. Will take less time second
    time around
  6. model of memory
    that relates STM to the sensory registers, LTM, and control processes
    modal model
  7. type of memory
    that is difficult to verbalize and encompasses conditioning, priming, and
    procedural memory
    nondeclarative memory
  8. wave of
    electrical energy flowing down an axon to trigger the release of
    neurotransmitters (2 words)
    action potential
  9. structure of the
    limbic system that processes the emotional aspects of memory
  10. meaning of words, Wernicke’s area. Information about things
    like objects get stored in association areas. Storage
    temporal lobes
  11. neuroimaging
    technique that looks for the presence of oxygen atoms in the brain by utilizing
    a large magnet to track blood flow
    blood oxygen levels
  12. measures
    metabolic activity in the brain through the tracking of a radioactive subsance. :
    glucose level. Injected with radioactive isotopes. Shows activity but no brain
  13. motor
    functioning subcortical structure. Helpful with procedural memory.

    structures important in motor functioning and unconscious types of memory
    processes like procedural memory (2 words)
    basal ganglia.
  14. gateway from STM to LTM.
    Deficient in Alzheimer’s.
    New information
  15. thalamus
    and hypothalamus. Stores factual knowledge.
  16. procedural
    memory, hindbrain. motor control
  17. unintentional learning
    incidental learning
  18. according to this
    perspective, memory performance is better with deep rather than shallow
    processing of the to-be-remembered info (3 words)
    levels of processing
  19. a type of
    rehearsal where new to-be-learned info is associated with old info already in
    the memory store
    elaborative rehearsal
  20. this theory
    suggests that memory for concrete words may be stored in both verbal and
    imaginal codes (2 words)
    dual code theory
  21. according to this
    effect, information that is generated is better remembered than info that is
    simply read or heard
    generation effect
  22. retrieval cues
    one devises to help recall large sets of information (2 words)
    retrieval plan
  23. sensory memory for visual information
    iconic memory
  24. sensory memory for auditory information
    echoic memory
  25. we learn better easier to remember when its in
  26. time to rehesarse the information in the
    beginning can help us remember.
    primacy effect
  27. still in short term easier to recall
    recency effect
  28. information into senses from the environment
  29. interpreting this sensational information
  30. limited resources for cognitive processing
  31. hold information in STM, do some processing/manipulation
    with it like rehearsing
    working memory
  32. processes verbal and auditory information. working memory
    phonological loop
  33. slave system. Processes visual and
    spatial information

    according to the
    Baddeley and Hitch model, this sketchpad in working memory is responsible for
    visual and spatial processing
    Visuospatial sketchpad
  34. this component of
    the Baddeley and Hitch model allocates attentional resources and supresses
    irrelevant info in working memory (2 words)
    central executive
  35. removes
    irrelevant info from working memory
  36. this working
    memory structure is responsible for the active rehearsal of verbal and auditory
    info and enters visually presented items into the phonological loop (2 words)
    articulatory loop
  37. Temporary store house. inner ear
    phonological store
  38. this effect
    refers to the idea that people prefer things that they have been exposed to
    before, even if they are unaware of the exposure (2words)
    mere exposure effect
  39. this type of
    priming is represented by faster or more accurate retrieval when the same or
    related info has been previously retrieved
    repitition priming
  40. in this task one
    must decide whether or not a presented string of letters is a word (2 wordds)
    lexical decision task
  41. a type of memory
    that occurs outside of awareness and is affected more by perceptual rather than
    conceptual characteristics
    implicit memory
  42. a type of
    nondeclarative memory for skills and how to do things
    procedural memory
  43. memory cue for episodic memory

    the idea that
    episodic memory retrieval may be better when the retrieval context matches the
    learning context (2 words)
    encoding specificity
  44. according to this
    principle, episodic memory performance is better when the processes used to
    remember info match those used to encode it
    transfer appropriate processing
  45. forgetting caused
    by this type of interference occurs when newer memories interfere with
    retrieval of similar older memories
    retroactive interference
  46. forgetting caused
    by this type of interference occurs when older memories interfere with
    retrieval of similar newer memories
    proactive interference
  47. this effect
    refers to the idea that in epiodic memory, as the number of associations with a
    concept increases, response time and or error rates to confirm any one
    association also increases
    fan effect
  48. the finding that
    giving part of a set of to-beremembered info can harm recall (3words)
    part set cuing
  49. according to this
    effect, memory is better for distinctive items. in episodic memory
    von restorff effect
  50. a semantic memory
    representation in which several items are treated as equivalent in some way
  51. a mental
    construct containing info associated with an idea
  52. refers to the idea that some category members are more representative
    of the category than are others
    graded cateogory membership
  53. the tendency to
    treat category members as if they shared some underlying essence refers to
    psycholgical essentialism
  54. this is a single representation that serves as an average category member
    category prototype
  55. this is how info
    is retrieved from a semantic network model. one association triggers another association etc (2 words)
    spreading activation
  56. describes knowledge in terms of basic propositions and the connections among them. two nodes and a link
    propositional networks
  57. a multiple trace
    model of LTM that uses the idea of encoding specificity(content, associative and contextual information) to account for both
    recall and recognition memory
    Search for associative memory SAM
  58. THeories of memory that assume that information is represented in a massively interconnected network in which information is encoded by the strength of the associations among the units
    parallel distributed processing models PDP
  59. this type of
    memory is experienced as remembering an event from one's own perspective
    field memories
  60. this type of
    memory is experienced from an outsider's perspective
    observer memories
  61. cant remember anything from age of 2-3 because frontal lobes havent developed
    infantile amnesia
  62. old people remember things in their 20s cause its life changing
    reminiscence bump
  63. these memories
    are highly detailed and enduring
    flashbulb memory
  64. these memories
    contain both episodic and semantic components and make up one's life narrative
    autobiographical memory
  65. this type of
    memory relies on our ability to recollect where an item of info originated
    source memory
  66. allows us to distinguish between what we actually did and what
    we only thought about doing
    internal source monitoring
  67. copywriting someones memory without knowing you did
  68. this effect
    refers to labeling nonfamous persons as famous simply because the name leicits
    a feeling of familiarity (2words)
    false fame effect
  69. imagining an
    event may lead to a person remembers the event as
    having actually been experienced
    imagination inflation
  70. according to this
    effect, people are more willing to accept a previoiusly rejected opinion when a
    low credibility source has been forgotten over time
    sleeper effect
  71. according to this
    law, memory performance may decline at high levels of arousal and may be best
    at moderate levels (2words)
    yerkes dodson law
  72. according to this
    hypothesis, at heightened levels of emotional arousal people tend to focus on
    more salient details and thus have poorer memory for peripheral details
    easterbrook hypothesis
  73. this type of
    interview represents a technique to increase the amount of correct info given
    by eyewhitnesses and includes things like reinstating the context of the crime,
    taking multiple perspectives when relating details, and limiting interuptions
    as witnesses are realting their stories
    cognitive interview
  74. these
    suggestions, intentional or not, can make it difficult for witnesses to
    distinguish accurate from inaccurate memories
    misleading post event suggestions
  75. this effect
    refers to the finding by Loftus and Palmer that the way questions are posed can
    influence what is remembered by an eyewhitness
    wording effects
  76. metamemory
    ratings of how well a person feels something new has been learned
  77. metacognitive
    judgement about the likelyhood of later recognizing comething that cannot
    currently be recalled
  78. this state refers
    to a feeling that the retrieval of a forgotten word or name is imminent
    Tip of the tounge
  79. learn info better if its just beyond your comprehension
    proximal region of learnign
  80. this type of
    memory allows one to complete an intended action in the future and requires
    encoding when the action is to be done, monitoring the environment for a
    retrieval cue, and retrieving the memory for the action at the appropriate time
    prospective memory
  81. this hypothesis
    suggests that hudgements of learning are often incorrect because they are based on recently encountered info that
    is in short term memory (2words)
    monitoring retrieval hypothesis
  82. this type of
    amnesia reflects an inability to aquire new memories
    anterograde amnesia
  83. the greater loss
    of newer, rather than older, memories in retrograde amnesia follows this law
    ribots law
  84. this type of
    amnesia is brief, typically lasting 3-8 hours, but emcompasses a wide range of
    memory loss
    transient global amnesia
  85. involves forgetting fundamental spects of one's identity
    dissociative fugue
  86. a type of
    psychogenic amnesia characterized by the appearance of two or more distinct
    identities with an inability for the person to recall key info about his/her
    separate identities
    Dissociative identity disorder
  87. when this process
    of solidifying memory traces over time is disrupted by trauma to the brain,
    retrograde amnesia may result
  88. this condition is
    often found in the type of anterograde amnesia caused by damage to the
    diencephalon and refers to a spontaneous production of false memories
  89. this type of
    neurological disease can take one of several forms that encompass significant intellectual
    decline affecting loss of memory, abstract thinking, and/or language
  90. impaired word
    finding without the loss of comprehension
  91. this type of
    aphasia invloves the loss of memory for the meaning of words (receptive
    language abilities)
    wernickes aphasia
  92. this type of
    aphasia involves difficulty with word finding and fluency of speech (expressive
    language abilities)
    brocas aphasia
  93. an inability to
    use memory to recognize faces
  94. this type of
    amnesia is caused by aquired brain damage due to stroke, traumatic brain
    injury, or electroconvulsive therapy
    organic amnesia
  95. a way to reduce or control interference by activley reducing the activation of interfereing information
  96. the prime and the target are from the same semantic category and share features. works because of spreading neural networks
    semantic priming
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Mem and Cog FINAL
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