Cognitive Psychology

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Cognitive Psychology
2010-04-21 03:45:06
Cognitive Psychology

Midterm #1
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  1. Cognitive Psychology -- Neisser
    refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used
  2. Cognitive Psychology -- Solso
    the scientific study of the thinking mind
  3. Cognitive questions about the mind
    • What is it?
    • What are the contents?
    • Where did those contents come from?
    • How does the mind interact with the world?
  4. Plato's Idea
    • Information from the senses is incomplete/imperfect (cave analogy)
    • Most knowledge exists innately (accessed by rational thought , may need appropriate cues)
  5. Descartes Idea
    • The one thing that can be known for sure is that we are capable of thinking
    • Ideas and sensations are real, thus the world likely exists
  6. Rationalism
    • Emphasized ideas as the product of logical reasoning
    • Contents of the mind are endogenous
    • Mistrusts senses as source of valid information
  7. Empiricism
    Contents of the mind based on sensory input, observation
  8. British Empiricists
    • John Locke
    • David Hume
  9. Empiricist: Contents of the Mind
    • Tabula Rasa
    • First input: sensations
    • Subsequent ideas through association of sensations and ideas
  10. Psychophysicists
    • Ernst Weber
    • Gustave Fechner
  11. Psychophysicists - primary question
    • How does sensation become an idea
    • Absolute/Difference thresholds
    • Remains a sub-discipline of cognitive psychology
  12. Wilhelm Wundt
    • Along with the introspectionist
    • Investigated consciousness by direct inspection
    • Consciousness the object of focus
    • Either its parts or its purpose and action
    • What are the contents and operations of the mind
  13. Gestalt Psychology
    • Phenomenological experience is not solely a product of bottom up activity
    • whole perception: sum (parts, relationships among them) - the importance of stimulus context
    • Early examples included the "Gestalt Laws of Perception"
  14. Behaviorism
    • Emphasized empirical data
    • behavior, not introspection
    • Early framework: S-R
    • Later approaches incorporated S-O-R
  15. Tolman
    • Behaviorism
    • Latent learning (rats learned a maze without direct reward in the goal box)
    • Cognitive maps (rats learned context, not just S-R associations)
    • A forerunner of investigations of cognition
  16. Hull
    • Mathematical theory
    • Modeled state, effect of organism, set of the mind
  17. Modern Cognitive Psychology
    • Developed in 1950s and 1960s
    • Strict behaviorism couldn't address interesting questions about mental operations
    • "New Look" - attempted to explain psychodynamic phenomena in behaviorist paradigm
  18. Information Processing
    • The central concept in cognitive psychology
    • Based on computer metaphor
    • Classic version: cognition occurs as a sequential series of events in which info is encoded,
    • computations occur, and results used to influence behavior
    • Modern version: parallel processing is emphasized
  19. Sensory Store
    • Representation of sensory information
    • Held for short duration (<500 ms for vision)
  20. Pattern Recognition
    • Combination of sensory elements into an object
    • activates all or part of a previously stored representation
  21. Filters, Selection
    • Attention: filter only allowing a subset of info for additional processing
    • Selection: a post-identification filter
  22. Response Selection
    • The goal of info processing is the adaptive control of behavior
    • Output allows the selection of the next behavior (action, speech, thought).
  23. Mental Chronometry: central concept,
    • A method for investigating IP
    • Central concept: mental processing takes time
    • Assumes that each sequential processing step takes time
    • Adding operations takes additional time
    • Increasing the difficulty takes additional time
  24. Subtraction Method
    • Donders
    • By subtraction, we can calculate the time taken in specific operations
    • Time for signal to travel from ankle to shoulder level in the spinal cord
  25. Neuropsychology
    usually refers to a clinical focus, specialization

  26. Neurons
    • Brain cells
    • Consist of: soma, dendrites (input), and axons (output)
  27. Glia
    • Support cells
    • 10x more glial cells than neurons
    • Provide nutritive and structural support
    • produce myelin
  28. Myelin
    • Insulation for axons
    • made from lipids and appears white
    • nerve fibers are white matter, cell bodies are gray matter
  29. How do neurons communicate?
    Electrical Signals --> Axon --> Synapse --> Action Potential
  30. Electrical Signal Role in Communication
    • Neuron have a voltage
    • 70 mV more negative inside than outside
    • Electricity travel across dendrite and move in all direction
    • Get smaller the further away they are from the source
  31. Axon Role in Communication
    • Special molecules produce the action potential
    • electrical signal that travels in one direction
    • always the same size
  32. Synapse Role in Communication
    • At the end of axon
    • Terminal button releases chemical neurotransmitters
    • drift across synapse
    • received by molecules on dendrite
    • bind to specific molecules like a key in a lock
    • NT reception produces AP in receiving neuron
  33. How do neurons process info?
    • Receive input at thousands of junctions
    • Combination of synaptic activity determines whether a neuron will or won't produce an AP
  34. What is the brain?
    Neurophysiology and Neuranatomic definition
    • NP: the material and efficient cause
    • NA: the formal cause (structure and morphology)
  35. Neocortex
    The layer of cells on the surface of the forebrain

  36. Cortical Lobes
    Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
  37. Gyri and Sulci
    The hills and valleys on the brain surface
  38. Important Sulci
    • Interhemispheric Fissure
    • Central sulcus
    • Sylvian Fissure
  39. Sensory Areas: what and where
    • Auditory - Temporal Lobe
    • Visual - Occipital Lobe
    • somatosensory - Parietal Lobe, behind the central sulcus
    • Motor cortex - Frontal Lobe, in front of the central sulcus
  40. Bell-Magendie Law
    • Motor cortex is in the front
    • Sensory cortices are in the back
    • Motor is ventral, sensory is dorsal
    • Same throughout the nervous system
  41. Corpus Callosum
    a fiber tract connecting left and right hemispheres
  42. Calcarine fissure
    Primary Visual cortes
  43. Thalamus
    • Found in the center of the brain
    • Sits atop the spinal cord/brainstem
    • Sensory/motor relay between cortex and other areas
  44. Cerebellum
    • Part of the motor control system
    • PET and fMRI studies indicate it may be important for cognitive function, as well
  45. Hypothalamus
    • Part of the 'limbic system'
    • Important for motivation
  46. Basal Ganglia
    • A set of structures deep within the forebrain
    • Motor control
  47. Hippocampus
    • In the temporal lobe
    • Important for the formation of memory
  48. Reticular Activating System
    • Arousal
    • Sleep /wake cycles
    • But also general alertness
  49. Pros for Localization of Cognitive Function
    • Phrenology
    • Language localization: Broca and Wernicke
    • Motor functions: Fritsch & Hitzig
  50. Cons for Localization of Cognitive Function
    • Flourens
    • Lashley
    • Mass Action
    • Equipotentiality
    • Hebb
  51. Flourens
    Removed parts of dog brain and did not observe the changes predicted by phrenologists
  52. Lashley
    Had rats learn a complex maze following removal of parts of cortex - looking for the engram (memory trace)
  53. Mass Action
    • Deficit depended upon the amount of cortex removed
    • Specific location of the lesion was not important
  54. Equipotentiality
    • Each segment of cortex is capable of functioning like any other
    • Differentiation is the result of experience, not intrinsic qualities
  55. Hebb
    • Suggested that memory is a function of large parts of cortex
    • The engram is a network of cells that re-wire themselves
    • Memory is a function of a mass of cells
    • A memory is spread across a network of cells
    • A given cell may participate in many memory networks
    • Cell Assemblies
  56. Current opinion of Cognitive Localization
    • Many functions can be localized (sensory and language)
    • Distributed networks control many functions (Perception, ID, Language, Attention)
    • Within a given area, mass action and equipotentiality are valid
    • Memory (Agnosia with lesions of ITG
    • Perceptual encoding
  57. Lesions
    • Oldest method for studying brain functions
    • Problem: removal does NOT mean that the area was the 'center' of a particular function
  58. Event-related Potentials
    • Nerve cells produce small electrical fields
    • The sum of these fields is the EEG
  59. EEG
    • EEG may be time locked
    • Random fluctuations average out over trials
    • producing ERP
    • Positive voltage peak at about 300 ms is called P300
  60. ERP PROs and CONs
    • ERPs have excellent temporal resolution
    • ERPs have poor spatial resolution
  61. CT Scans
    • An X-ray image of the brain assembled from multiple individual images
    • Cons: Poor spatial resolution, doesn't show function well
    • Pros: cost effective for diagnosing strokes, tumors, etc.
  62. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    • Nerve cells need a lot of oxygen and glucose to function
    • radioactive oxygen or glucose is injected and when atom decay they emit rays
    • detectors compute location of decay by timing rays
    • Use subtraction method to compare multiple conditions
    • Pros: decent spatial resolution, shows functional changes
    • Cons: high cost, spatial resolution still not great, low temporal resolution (30s)
  63. fMRI: how it works and pros
    • Pros: excellent spatial resolution, decent temporal resolution
    • Large magnet causes alignment of molecules
    • Second magnetic field is applied to cause some atoms/molecules to shift fields by 90 degrees
    • scanner measures change in magnetic field
    • different atoms/molecules/ return at different rates
  64. MRI
    • Computer uses field changes to construct a picture of the densities of different atoms/molecules
    • Specifically mesures changes in oxygenated blood cells
    • specifically de-oxygenated hemoglobin
    • where is the brain using the most oxygen
    • BOLD-blood oxygenation level dependent image
  65. Sensory System Structure
    • Receptor cells - location of transduction
    • Via thalamus
    • Cortical project area
    • mapping of receptor organ
    • environment in represented in contralateral
    • Primary cortex projects to secondary, association areas
  66. Vision:
    Receptor organ
    Receptor cells
    To thalamus
    Where in thalamus
    Coritcal Projection
    • Receptor organ: Retina
    • Receptor cells: Photoreceptors --> tranduce photons
    • To thalamus: through RGC (retinal ganglion cell axons) in optic nerve
    • Where in thalamus: Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN)
    • Coritcal Projection: V1, secondary corticies (dorsal: where and ventral: what paths)

  67. The Eye: Retina, Fovea, Blind Spot
    • Retina: Network of neurons on back wall of eyeball
    • Cones: central
    • Rods: peripheral
    • Fovea: (only cones)
    • Blind spot: ganglion cell axons exit, blood vessels access eyeball
  68. Retinotopic mapping
    • Visual field centered at gaze fixation
    • Each retina is mapped across V1
    • left/right of gaze is processed in contralateral hemisphere
    • above/below mapped around calcarine fissure
  69. Forms Perception
    • Figure- Ground Perception
    • Proximity
    • Similarity
    • Continuation
  70. Gestalt Principles of Perception
    • Figure-Ground
    • Proximity: reduction of horizontal differences = see as series of rows, reductions of vertical differences = see as column
    • Similarity: if see patch of color tend to think of as one whole shape or that they belong together
    • Continuation: if edge continues uninterrupted see as one object
  71. Sinusoidal Visual Perception
    Define sine wave and properties of complex wave
    • Sine wave:Based on how quickly object reflects/absorbs light
    • Complex wave
    • Properties:
    • Spatial frequency: Cells in V1 are sensitive to different levels of spatial frequency
    • Phase: distinguishes different stimuli based on what phase its in
    • Contrast: amplitude of wave determines contrast
  72. Importance of sinusoidal gratings
    Cells in V1: there are more cells that respond to vertical and horizontal edges than oblique edges
  73. Cortical components in visual perception : Receptive Fields
    • Retinal Ganglion Cell (RGC)
    • Simple cortical cell
    • Complex cortical cell
    • Hypercomplex cell
  74. Retinal Ganglion Cell (RGC)
    receives info from lots of photoreceptors in a cricular patter
  75. LGN cells
    Converge on cell in V1 that responds to sequence of circular patterns = edge
  76. Simple Cortical Cell
    responds to simple sine wave with horizontal, vertical, oblique orientation
  77. Complex Cortical Cell
    Rows of circular field that responds to moving edge with particular orientation
  78. Hypercomplex Cell
    In V2 oriented edge that's moving but it stops --> corner
  79. Color in Visual Perception
    • Spectrum -- Trichromaticity
    • Cortical area V4
    • Color constancy, Context Effects
    • Color and After Effects, Pop-Out
  80. Light: what's it made of?
    • Consists of photons at various wavelengths
    • Visible: 400-700nm
  81. Trichromatic explanation of Color
    Three color receptors: cones, long-, medium-, short gama sensitivity and rods

    • rods = respond to green and brightness/dimness
    • cones = have long and short sensitivity
  82. Anatomy of color perception
    • V1 cell can respond to color --> blobs
    • V4 = located along collateral sulcus, 1st major convergence of color info, output to ventral and dorsal streams, basic color processing goes to dorsal and ventral streams
  83. How is color perception sensitive to context?
    • Reflected light depends upon light source
    • Clothing matches when you dress indoors, but not outdoors
    • Mutual inhibition of color-responsive cells
  84. Explain an after-image
    • Activation of a subset of cells by image (yellow, blue-green, rods in both locations)
    • Blank screen - relative increased activation of other cells
    • Can be observed with color and orientation sensitive cells
  85. Anomalous photopigment
    • Colorblindness
    • X-linked effect
    • Protonomaly
    • Deuteranomaly
  86. Missing photopigment
    • X-linked effect
    • Protonopia - no red
    • Deuteranopia - no green
    • Tritanopia - no blue
  87. How do we see depth?
    • Oculomotor cues : distance
    • Binocular cues: two eyes
    • monocular: organization
  88. Oculomotor Depth involves...
    • Convergence: direction of each eye
    • Accomodation: lens focus
    • Increased muscle strain is a cue to proximity
  89. Binocular Depth involves...
    Two different views: focus beyond the image, separate images on retina, perception of depth
  90. Monocular Cues
    • Interposition: One object in front of another
    • Size: large is usually closer
    • Perspective: distances converges on a vanishing poing
    • Motion parallax: near items/far items move in opposite directions
  91. What area is involved in Motion Perception?
    V6 Flow fields vs. object movement, detects self moving v. object moving
  92. Audition Pathway
    Hair cells bend --> voltage change in membrane --> NT release --> spiral ganglion cells transport message to MGN of thalamus --> auditory cortex in temporal lobe
  93. Audition: receptors and transduction
    • Air pressure wave to motion tympanic membrane, ossicles, fluid in cochlea
    • Displacement of basilar membrane bends hair cells
  94. Regions on the auditory cortex
    • Primary Auditory cortex
    • Belt Region
    • Parabelt region: anterior/posterior
  95. Primary Auditory Cortex
    Responsive to pitch
  96. Belt region
    responds to combos of sound, complex stimuli
  97. Anterior parabelt region
    • analogous to ventral 'what' stream in vision
    • sound recognition and identification
  98. Parabelt posterior region
    analogous to visual dorsal 'where' stream
  99. Things involved in Auditory Perception
    • Pitch
    • Intensity
    • Timbre
    • Location
    • Masking
  100. Pitch: what is it and how is coded in the cochlea?
    • Defined by frequency of sound
    • Cochlea has labeled line place coding approach
  101. How is low pitch coded?
    frequency and rate coding
  102. How is pitch from 200+ coded?
    • place coding
    • speech occurs where the overlap of place and rate coding is
  103. Intensity
    The more cells that are firing the louder the sound
  104. Timbre
    phase is the reason why we hear it as one sound and not multiple sounds
  105. Properties of Sound Localization
    • Interaural Time Difference
    • Interaural Intensity
  106. Interaural Time Difference is...
    • Most important cue
    • Processed in the superior olive where circuits of cells respond to relative arrival time
    • Broader bandwidth = better localization
  107. Interaural Intensity difference is a function of...
    Shadowing: a decrease in intensity on the opposite side of localization, most effective for high frequencies
  108. Optimal sound localization requires...
    head or the sound source to be moving
  109. Cone of confusion
    • Arrival times only give direction in one dimension
    • equal arrival means source is at the midline
    • Ambiguity is reduced by the pinna
  110. Masking: What is it?, What is its task? What are its properties
    • A 2nd auditory stimulus makes the 1st stimulus harder to detect
    • Task is segregating two simultaneous stimuli
    • Frequency overlap, similarity, and critical band increase masking (2 octaves)
  111. What are the two basic characteristics of perception that may be detected?
    • Is there a stimulus or not
    • Has the stimulus changed or not
  112. What are the two types of thresholds?
    Auditory and Difference
  113. Absolute Threshold
    Minimum stimulus magnitude which can be reliably detected
  114. Difference threshold
    • Minimum change in magnitude detectable as a change
    • The 'just noticeable difference' (JND)
  115. Pros and Cons of Method of Limits
    • Pros: moderately quick
    • Cons: can have considerable error due to bias in responding
  116. Pros and Cons of Method of Constant Stimuli
    • Pros: the most precise measurement of the threshold
    • Cons: the slowest method
  117. Pros and Cons of Method of Adjustment
    • Pros: Very quick
    • Cons: most subject to error, very imprecise
  118. Properties of Signal Detection Theory
    Sensitivity and Bias
  119. Signal Detection Theory : Sensitivity --> What is the goal?
    Goal is to determine when an actual signal occurs against the background noise
  120. Signal Detection Theory: Bias
    There is always a tendency to respond positively or negatively and that can be affected by experience
  121. Failures of Recognition
    • Prosopagnosia
    • Pure Word Deafness
    • Luria's Pure Alexic Pt.
  122. Prosopagnosia
    • Cannot recognize faces
    • Can recognize voice and components of face
  123. Pure Word Deafness
    • Cannot recognize, comprehend speech
    • Hearing otherwise intact
  124. Luria's Pure Alexic Pt.
    • Sudden onset acquired alexia
    • Could see, comprehend speech
  125. Perceiving a picture depends on?
    Context and relatedness to study scene
  126. Marr's Algorithm: what is it? 4 levels of representation?
    • Early computer model for visual perception/recognition
    • Primary concern: identifying 3D objects despite variation in 2D shape
    • 4 levels of representation:
    • Retinal (image) level
    • Primal sketch
    • 2 1/2-D
    • 3-D
  127. Properties of retinal (image) level
    • Pixels code level of brightness
    • Flat image
    • Like b/w TV picture
    • Resolution: 8 bit (0-255)
    • This is the info available to photoreceptor matrix
  128. Properties of Primal Sketch
    • Pixels coded as -127-0 and 0 - +127
    • Algorithm searches for zero crossings
    • edge
    • line segment
    • Contrast = magnitude of difference at edge
    • Primal objects, 'blobs' are patches of light or dark w/border of zero crossings
  129. Properties of 2 1/2-D Sketch
    • Algorithm computes edges, contrast ratios, and blobs
    • probabilities for shading, contrast
    • Builds image (proababilities for 3-D on a 2-D surface)
  130. Properties of a 3-D representation
    • Volumetric images are computed
    • uses 'geon'-like template-elements to construct objects
    • Incorporates Gestalt principles to estimate object shape
  131. Theoretical approaches to Object Recognition
    • Template Theories
    • Feature Theories
    • Structural Theories
  132. Letter-Word Recognition: Feature Approach
    • Feature (bottom-up approach)
    • Examine letter for feature properties and compare those features
    • Feature examples: edges, orientations, locations
  133. Letter-Word Recognition: Template Approach
    • Concept driven
    • Compare perceived objects with template
  134. Posner Letter Matching: what is its task?
    • Task is to indicate if letters are same or different
    • Physical appearance
    • Name
    • Vowel/Consonant: vowels quicker than consonants
  135. Feature Matching: what is its task?
    • Task, name the letter
    • Tachistoscopically presented
    • Subjects respond by voice
  136. Pandemonium
    • Combines feature and template analysis
    • Four levels of analyzer modules (daemons)
    • Image, Feature, Cognitive, Decision
  137. Pandemonium: Stage 1: Image Daemon
    • Encodes the visual signal
    • Extracts features: contrasts, edges, borders
    • Each feature excites corresponding daemons in stage 2
  138. Pandemonium: Stage 2: Feature Daemons
    • Analyze/Recognize features in the image
    • Each daemon reports the strength of evidence for its feature
    • Lines at a given orientation
    • Curves
    • Corners at a given orientation
    • Combinations of features excites corresponding daemons in stage 3
  139. Pandemonium: Stage 3: Cognitive Daemons
    • Daemon reports strength of its particular combination of features
    • Lines meeting at oblique angle excite cognitive daemons representing A, Y, K
    • Parallel lines excite cognitive daemons representing E,F,H,N,M,U
    • Horizontal lines excite cognitive daemons representing A,E,F,H
  140. Pandemonium: Stage 4: Decision Daemon
    • Listens to the pandemonium of shouting cognitive daemons
    • Loudest daemon wins
  141. Limits of Info. Processing
    • If the initial info processing involves
    • sensory storage, filtering, pattern recognition, then reporting the output for awareness
  142. Sperlings sensory registers
    • Pre-cuing: 10 items
    • Simultaneous: 9 items
    • Matches historical estimates of span of apprehension
  143. Word Superiority Effect
    • Letter recognition is affected by context
    • implies data-driven processes are sensitive to top-down modulation
  144. Interactive Activation Model: Why was it developed? What kind of processing does it use?
    • Developed as explanation for WSE
    • Letter ID/detection better in words than nonwords
    • Better in words than for letters alone
    • Combines top-down and bottom-up processing
  145. Activation node of Interactive activation model results in...
    • The bottom up activation of all compatible nodes at the next higher level
    • The inhibition of other nodes at that level
    • The inhibition of incompatible nodes at lower levels
  146. Dual Route Model: What was it developed? What processing does it use?
    • Developed as an alternative to IAM
    • Explains acquired dyslexia
    • speech/reading comprehension
    • Primarily feed forward activation/ processing
  147. Speech Recognition Properties
    • Formants
    • Vowels
    • Consonants
  148. Formant
    • Bands of sound energy
    • Change across time = speech
    • Lowest formant is principal pitch of voice
  149. Vowels
    Relative position of formants
  150. Consonants
    Rapid changes in formant positions
  151. Prototype matching
    • Phonemic decoding - words, lexical nodes
    • Parallels dual route model of reading
  152. Motor Matching
    • Phonemic decoding
    • Activates motor patterns for speech
    • Mirror neurons
    • Viewing speaker- biases perception = ventriliquism
  153. Cohort Model
    • Phoneme units activated
    • Inhibits lexical units of other phonemes
    • Syntax and semantics modulates baseline activation of lexical units
  154. Organizing the Perceived World Theories
    • Structural Theory
    • View Based Theory
  155. Structural and View Based Theory Properties
    • Pragnanz
    • Proximity
    • Similarity
    • Common Fate
    • Good Continuation
  156. Pragnanz
    Perceived objects tend to be as simple as possible
  157. Proximity
    Perceived objects tend to have components near to each other
  158. Similarity
    repeated features are grouped into large 'objects'
  159. Common Fate
    Things moving in the same direction are grouped together
  160. Good Continuation
    Points that, when connected, for straight or simple curved lines are perceived as belonging together
  161. Biederman's Recognition by Components Model (RBC)
    • Utilizes a shape alphabet
    • Geons
    • RBC proposed for recognition of "basic category level"
  162. Evidence for RBC
    • Recognition of incomplete objects depends on geons
    • Complex objects are more resistant to the removal of individual geons
    • The relationship among geons is critical
  163. View-Invariant recognition
    Cues to shape obscured
  164. View-dependent recognition
    Failure because of uncommon perspective
  165. Recognition and Response Times are dependent on ....
  166. What is Attention?
    • Difficult to define...but you know when you are paying it
    • What happens at the points of rest in the stream of consciousness
  167. ADHD
    Difficulty organizing tasks and sustaining attention
  168. Hemispheric Neglect
    • Ignores info from left side
    • dressing, shaving, cancellation task, flower drawing, clock drawing
    • Not poor sensory response, lack of attending
  169. Hyperarousal PTSD
    • Excessive scanning
    • Hyper-aware of possibility of danger
    • Easily distracted
  170. Rumination in Depression
    • Unable not to stop thinking about depressing topics
    • Concentrates well, but on one or one set of items
    • Cannot disengage attention
  171. Attention implies...
    • selectivity
    • shiftable
    • divisible
    • a finite resource
  172. Attention is a mechanism that...
    • focuses processing and awareness on subset of sensory info
    • when another focus is possible
  173. Dichotic Listening
    Subject could only provide info about the speaker they were told to attend to, and only surface things (gender) in the other
  174. Early Selection Theory
    • Selective Filter
    • Limited capacity channel
    • Detection-ID device
  175. Early Attenuation Theory
    • All info analyzed for
    • physical properties
    • linguistic properties
  176. Late Attenuation Theroy
    • All info processed to the level of ID
    • selection occurs after ID, info not passed to working memory decays quickly
  177. Characteristics of Attention
    • Paying Attention requires effort
    • Attention functions like a spotlight
    • Some things automatically attract attention: they "pop-out"
    • There is a limited-capacity route to attention
    • Different characteristics describe attention attracted automatically and attention directed by volitional control (controlled v. uncontrolled)
  178. Kahneman's Attention
    Attentions a limited resource