dehon.txt

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dehon.txt
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2012-04-30 23:50:07
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Dehon Final
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  1. Magnetic stripes of the sea floor refers to f�
    a. evidence polar reversal
  2. The earth�s core is inferred to be--
    d. mostly iron
  3. The premise that present-day processes have operated throughout geologic time is
    • known as the principle of-
    • b. uniformitarianism
  4. 4. Ocean-ocean convergence zones are marked by the occurrence of�
    d. volcanic island arcs
  5. 5. Continental crust �
    d. is compressed and thickened at converging plate margins
  6. 6. The mid-oceanic ridges are sites of�
    c. sea floor spreading
  7. 7. The earth is estimated to be _____years old?
    d. 4.6 billion
  8. 8. All plate margins are characterized by�
    a. high earthquake activity
  9. 9. Deep, oceanic trenches are found above ________ .
    c. subduction zones
  10. 10. Abundant fossils begin showing up in rocks that are _____years old.
    b. 545 million
  11. 11. The top layer of the ocean crust is composed of�
    b. pillow basalt
  12. 12. The upper mantle is composed of�
    d. peridotite
  13. 13. A untested explanation of an occurrence in nature is known as a(n)�
    b. hypothesis
  14. 14. In a stack of sedimentary rocks, the oldest rock layer is usually found at the ____ of the stack.
    c. bottom
  15. 15. Rubies and sapphires are gem quality varieties of--
    d. corundum
  16. 16. Which one of the following groups do most minerals in the earth�s crust belong?
    d. silicates
  17. 17. Quartz is composed of--
    d. silicon dioxide
  18. 18. The tendency for some minerals to break along smooth, flat surfaces is known as--
    d. cleavage
  19. 19. The most abundant mineral group in the crust is (are) the--
    a. feldspars
  20. 20. The most abundant mineral group at the earth�s surface is (are) ______.
    d. clay minerals
  21. Pyroxene minerals consist of
    single silicate chains
  22. 21. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is the mineral�
    c. calcite
  23. 23. The ferro-magnesium silicates are ______ colored.
    d. dark
  24. 24. Alumnosilicates are mostly_________ colored.
    a. light
  25. 25. Which of these is not an alumnosilicate minera?
    d. olivine
  26. 26. Which is not true?
    c. quartz is harder than topaz
  27. the rock cycle implies that
    any rock type can form from any other rock type
  28. 27. During the era of the dinosaurs�
    a. all continents were assembled into a super continent called Pangea
  29. 29. If you wanted to drill to the mantle, you would probably choose a location with thin crust. The obvious location for to such a site would be the�
    c. out in the ocean
  30. 36. the steps to the library are made out of
    limestone
  31. 30. Hematite is--
    d. iron oxide
  32. The earths core is inferred to be
    mostly iron
  33. 31. The trench-volcanic arc association is indicative of a ________ plate margin.
    a. convergent
  34. 33. The ocean crust is formed mostly of �
    d. basalt
  35. 34. The Japanese islands are an example of a ___________.
    c. island arc at a convergent margin
  36. Most of the Sodium (na) in rock forming mineral is found in
    feldspars
  37. 35. New material is formed at the _______ boundary (boundaries).
    b. divergent
  38. One rock is the material for another might well be a statement applied to the
    rock cycle
  39. 37. The Earth�s crust is thickest at�
    b. continental volcanic arcs
  40. 39. Aluminum is found in ________ minerals.
    c. feldspars and micas
  41. 40. The two sources of energy for the Earth system are _____ ______.
    b. heat and gravity
  42. the driving mechanism of plate tectonics is
    convection within the mantle
  43. the hawaiin island are formed as
    hot spots
  44. what is the source of lava for hawaii
    melting above a mantle plume
  45. 41. You are offered a raw diamond at a fantastically low price. How would you determine its authenticity?
    b. test its hardness with emery paper
  46. Scientific theories are guesses that may someday be proven by rigorous test
    False. they have been test and are appected as correct.
  47. 45. The San Andreas fault in California is a _____ plate margin.
    a. transform
  48. 47. The reddish mineral grains in the rock that makes up the steps to the library are�
    d. orthoclase
  49. 48. Rocks composed of bit and pieces of pre-existing rocks are most likely _____ in origin.
    b. sedimentary
  50. 49. We have never drilled into the mantle of the earth, but we find unaltered pieces of it as ____.
    c. at some rare volcanoes
  51. 50. We have never drilled into the core of the earth, but we but we can conclude what
    • its like by observing�
    • b. iron meteorites and earthquake waves
  52. Quartz-
    Glassy, clear or translucent
  53. Biotite-(mica)-
    dark brown sheets
  54. Olivine-
    glassy green grains
  55. Plagioclase(feldspar)-
    white or grey, box shaped
  56. Augite(pyroxene)-
    dark green to black grains with 90 degree cleavage
  57. 56. The earth is uniform in composition (all the same stuff) from the center to the
    • surface. Of course not.
    • False
  58. 57. There are more oxygen atoms in the crust of the earth than in the atmosphere. True
  59. 58. Minerals are not always crystalline solids.
    False (by definition the must be)
  60. 1. Metamorphic rocks are formed from pre-existing rocks.
    True
  61. 2. Metamorphosed limestone is much more resistant to chemical weathering
    than limestone because it has different minerals. (both are calcte)
    false
  62. 3. K-feldspar is more stable than quartz in chemical weathering.
    False
  63. 4. Basalts produce lots of rust (iron oxide) when weathered in a humid climate.
    True
  64. 5. Slates are resistant to chemical weathering.
    True
  65. Good, thick residual soils (pedalfers) are found in the northeast United States (New England).
    Thin rocky soils)False
  66. 7. To be a fossil, an object must be a part of the original organism.
    (any evidence) False
  67. 8. The most common sedimentary rocks are sandstones.
    (Shales, 50% of sedimentary)False
  68. 9. The light, buff colored stone that make up the facing of the library
    and the Mediterranean-style buildings on campus is limestone.
    True
  69. 10. The sea floor is composed of shale.
    (Basalt)False
  70. 11. Pillow basalt forms �
    B. on the ocean floor
  71. 12. Which of the following is most susceptible to chemical weathering by dissolution?
    A. calcite
  72. 13. Feldspar weathers to _____.
    B. clay
  73. 60. Present day geologic processes as essentially the same as those of the past.
    True
  74. 14. In which region of the United States are pedalfers most likely to form?
    B. southeast U.S.
  75. 15. Enchanted Rock near Llano, Texas is a �
    B. granite exfoliation dome
  76. 16. Iron oxide is common at the surface of the earth because it forms by the weathering of�
    C. iron-bearing silicates
  77. 17. Well-rounded and well-sorted, sand-sized grains in a sandstone is suggestive of�
    C. long distance of transport
  78. 18. The process by which dissolved mineral matter precipitates in the pore spaces of a sediment and binds it together is�
    C. cementation
  79. 19. The most abundant sedimentary rocks are�
    D. mudstones and shales
  80. 20. The grain size of igneous rocks is determined by the _________.
    A. cooling rate of the magma
  81. 21. Coquina is a rock formed of--
    B. broken shell fragments
  82. 22. Igneous rocks form from--
    A. a cooling magma
  83. 23. The rock seen in road cuts in the Hill Country is�
    C. limestone
  84. 24. Playa (dry) lakes of the southwest United States are sites of deposition of�
    D. evaporites
  85. 25. A sedimentary rock formed by repeated flooding of lowland next to a river is
    C. Shale
  86. 26. A sedimentary �rock� formed by accumulation of altered plant remains is�
    C. coal
  87. 27. Clay particles stick together to form shales and mudstones by�
    A. compaction
  88. 28. Which of the following is most likely to dissolve away in semi-humid a climate?
    B. gypsum
  89. 29. The colors red, yellow, and brown in sedimentary rocks are produced by�
    D. iron oxides/hydroxides
  90. 30. Finely divided (microscopic grains) pyrite in shale colors the rock-
    B. black
  91. 31. Black in limestone is usually due to the presence of�
    A. carbon
  92. 32. Which of the following is an indication of an alternating wet and dry environment such as a tidal flat?
    D. mud cracks
  93. 33. Which of the following can be used to determine paleocurrent direction�
    C. cross-bedding
  94. 34. The most abundant mineral group at the earth�s surface is(are) �
    A. clay-minerals
  95. 35. The caliche horizon of an ancient pedocal may be seen as a thin layer of _____
    C. limestone
  96. 36. Changes in sediment that occur after deposition are called�
    C. diagenesis
  97. 37. Shield volcanoes are built of _______.
    C. basalt
  98. 38. The steps to the library are made from blocks of�
    D. granite
  99. 39. Which metamorphic rock contains the same basic minerals as an igneous rock?
    A. gneiss
  100. 40. Heat from an igneous intrusion is the primary agent of change in _____metamorphism.
    A. contact
  101. 41. Mylonites are formed by _____ metamorphism.
    C. cataclastic
  102. 42. Which of the following metamorphic rocks displays a foliated texture?
    C. schist
  103. 43. Which mineral would indicate the higher grade of metamorphism?
    C. garnet
  104. 44. A thin, discoid-shaped, concordant igneous intrusion is probably a �
    B. sill
  105. 45. A sedimentary rock composed of angular pebbles is called-
    A. breccia
  106. 46. Phenocrysts are evidence of--
    C. two periods of cooling
  107. 47. When sea water evaporates, the last mineral to precipitate is ______.
    A. halite
  108. 48. _____ refers to the process of fossilization where the internal cavities and pores of the original organism are filled with precipitated mineral matter.
    C. Petrification
  109. 49. Low temperatrure and high pressure metamorphism (as in subduction zones) is the ________ facies.
    C. blueschist
  110. 50. The metamorphic rock formed from limestone is�
    D. marble
  111. 51. Thin, sheet-like, concordant igneous intrusions are;
    D. sills
  112. 52. A natural glass formed by rapid cooling of lava is called --
    d. obsidian
  113. 53. Steep-sided, classic, �volcano-shaped� cones are called--
    b. stratovolcanoes
  114. 54. Pyroclastic rocks form by--
    b. violent, explosive volcanic eruptions
  115. 55. Dolostone is formed by the addition of_ ____ to calcite in limestone.
    B. magnesium
  116. hornfels
    composed mostly of clays or baked clays
  117. 56. Slate
    Composed of mostly clays or baked clays
  118. Schist
    often composed mostly of micas
  119. Shale
    composed of mostly clays or baked clays
  120. Marble
    contains mostly calcie
  121. 58. Sandstone
    Usually, consists mostly of quartz
  122. quartzite
    usually, consist mostly of quartz
  123. Gneiss
    banded rocks with igneous like minerals
  124. limestone
    contains mostly calcite
  125. . The oldest parts of the sea floor are most
    likely occur near—
    • A) oceanic rifts
    • B) island hot spots
    • C) ocean side of subduction zones
    • D) sea mounts
  126. Texas State University is situated on the
    _____.
    Balcones fault zone
  127. El Capitan in west Texas is
    an example of an ancient ____
    reef
  128. Marine limestones found in the central
    United States are evidence of ___.
    ) former shallow seas covering the continent
  129. . Which one of the follow is not a possible economic product
    associate with salt domes
    manganese nodules
  130. The ocean
    crust is format at
    • rift
    • zones
  131. Hydrothermal fluids are spewing out into ocean
    depth at ____.
    black smokers
  132. Submaine canyons are usually found…
    • on
    • the continental shelf
  133. A submerged, flat topped, seamount rising 1 km or
    more above the sea floor is a(n)____.
    guyot
  134. 46. The Carbonate Composition Depth is the level…
    • ) below which sea water is not saturated with carbonate
    • ions
  135. 45. The oldest
    rocks in North America can be found inB
    canada
  136. 44. The term “orogeny”
    refers toB
    • D)
    • mountain building
  137. 43. The North
    American continent has grown progressively B
    • B) larger by
    • continental accretion
  138. 42. The core of
    the Sierra Nevada Mountains and Smoky Mountains exposes B
    Igneous rock
  139. 41. The Texas
    Hill Country and the Ozark Mountains are examples of mountain or hilly terrain
    formed by--
    • C)
    • dissection by stream erosion
  140. 40. The Basin
    and Range topography of western United States is related to B
    Stretching the crust
  141. 39. The Andes
    Mountains of South America are an example of mountains formed byB
    • A)
    • ocean plate-continental plate convergence
  142. 38. The Coast
    Ranges of Washington, Oregon, and northern California are formed by___
    volcanoes
  143. 37. Source
    materials for the sedimentary rocks in the Appalachian Mountains was located to
    the ________of the present day mountains.
    east
  144. 36. The Red Sea
    is interpreted as:
    A) a flooded rift valley
  145. 35. The stable
    interior of the continent is known as its
    craton
  146. 34. The compass
    direction formed by the intersection of a dipping surface and a horizontal
    plane is theB
    A) strike
  147. 33. The Alps,
    Himalayas, and AppalachiansB
    • C)
    • are folded mountains
  148. 32. According
    to the concept of _______, "floating" mountains adjust their
    elevation in response to erosion by upward buoyancy as surface material is
    removed.
    B) isostasy
  149. 31. The low-standing plains between horst-blocks areB
    • C)
    • graben
  150. 30. A fold that
    exposes beds that dip in toward the center of the fold is aB
    • B)
    • syncline
  151. 29. The Basin and Range Province of the western United
    States are characterized by a large number of B
    • C)
    • fault block mountains
  152. 28. Most of the
    world's largest mountain belts were formed in response to:
    compressional stress
  153. 27.
    Fractures in rock without movement along the fractures are called
    Joints
  154. 26. The
    Himalayan Mountains formed by _____.
    • A) continent B continent
    • convergence
  155. 25. Show me the
    Rift Valleys of East Africa, and I'll show you a:
    • D) diverging
    • plate boundary
  156. 24. If a
    sequence of beds gets younger toward the east, then they must be dipping to the_____.
    east
  157. 23. If the
    fault dips toward the up-thrown block, the fault is:
    reverse
  158. 22. In an
    overturned fold, the limbs dip
    _____ .
    in the same direction
  159. 21. A _____ is
    a fracture in bedrock along which movement has taken place.
    fault
  160. 20.
    Geologic structures (faults and folds) are important in oil and gas
    exploration because:
    B) structures can trap oil and gas
  161. 19. The San
    Andreas Fault system can be described as:
    strike-slip
  162. 18. A bed that
    dips due east, must strike:
    B) north-south
  163. 17. If the
    hanging wall has moved down, the fault is:
    normal
  164. 16. Which one of the following is consistent with
    deformation by folding?
    • C) the crust is shortened perpendicular to the
    • fold axis
  165. 15. The block
    of material overlying an inclined fault plane is the:
    Hanging Wall
  166. 14. A
    structural basin is simply a circular:
    Syncline
  167. 13. Which of
    the following would not be characteristic of an anticline:
    D) horizontal limbs
  168. 12. If the
    surface exposures (map views) of folded beds resemble V’s or horseshoes, then
    the folds must be:
    Plunging
  169. 11. If a deformed body recovers its original
    shape as stress is released, it is said to be:
    Elastic
  170. 10. A sea large wave created
    by an earthquake is properly called a__________.
    • B)
    • tsunami
  171. 9. A _______ is a flat topped hill that is usually
    an indication of flat lying strata
    • D)
    • mesa
  172. 8. A _________ is a prominent ridge formed by
    differential erosion of a resistant layer of dipping strata.
    C) hogback
  173. 7. We know what the mantle is made of because—
    • B)
    • samples of the shallow mantle are brought up in some volcanoes
  174. 6. The difference in the
    arrival time of the P and S wave is related to—
    A) the distance tothe earthquake from the seismic station
  175. 5. Most sedimentary rocks were originally
    deposited as flat-lying beds.
    True
  176. 4. Folds
    and thrust faults are caused by tension in the earth’s crust.
    False Copression
  177. 3. Faults are clearly an example of plastic
    strain.
    False Brittle
  178. 2. Beds usually dip in the direction of younger
    beds.
    True
  179. 1. Rocks near the surface deform mostly as fluid
    materials.
    False Brittle
  180. This feature marked by arrows is a___.…
    reverse fault
  181. This region has been subjected to—
    compressional stress
  182. This image shows a
    plunging syncline
  183. This exposed rock surface displays… (on Mars)
    joints
  184. Image
    represents evidence of…
    dome
  185. A surface composed of loose rock rubble at the angle
    of repose on mountain slopes is—
    D. talus
  186. Some avalanches move at great speed and even move
    uphill because they are—
    C. full of water
  187. _______ is among the slowest of the mass-wasting
    processes.
    A. creep
  188. ______ are rapid mass-movements saturated with water.
    D. mud flow
  189. ______ are mass movements that involve displacement of
    a mass of rock along a curved surface of failure.
    B. fall
  190. ______ aids mass-wasting by adding weight; weakening
    cohesion; and providing lubrication.
    D.water
  191. The deepest part of a stream is found at the—
    C. outside of a meander loop
  192. When sediment-laden water in a main channel sloshes
    out onto a flood plain during flooding, some
    of its medium- to fine-grained sediment load will be deposited along the
    side of the channel to form a ____.


    point bar
  193. At a bend in a river channel, maximum velocity is
    found on the _____ of the bend.
    D. Downstream
  194. The downward limit to to which a stream can erode is
    itsB
    C. baselevel
  195. V shaped valleys are deepened by fluvial erosion and widened by _______.
    • didnt know
    • A. masswasting
    • B. fluvial action
    • C. eoliand deposition
    • D.lacustrine
  196. Natural levees are formed byB
    C. deposition from flood waters as streams rise abovebank full capacity
  197. The largest, readily available source of fresh water
    is found as—
    groundwater
  198. In central Florida, a region with a great many small
    lakes, the surface material is probably composed ofB
    i think its one of these

    • A. a thick mantle of clay-rich sediment
    • D. a mantle of extremely rocky, unsortedmaterials
  199. Water wells draw water fromB
    B. saturated rock and sediments
  200. Artesian wells draw water fromB
    B. a confined aquifer
  201. Caves form by solution of limestone
    below the watertable
  202. The elevation of the water table is the same as the
    elevation ofB
    C. the water level in artesian wells
  203. Efficient water wells develop a _____ cone of
    depression.
    B. deep, wide
  204. When an aquitard or aquiclude is situated above the
    water table, a localized _____ may
    exists.
    artesian system
  205. Groundwater rises toward the surface in ______ wells.
    artesian
  206. The water table is
    • . the top of the zone of water saturation in
    • rock
  207. The capacity for rock to allow water to flow
    through it is its
    permeability
  208. _____ lake basins in arid regions hold water for short
    periods of time.
    Playa
  209. 60. Conglomerate
    Usually, consists mostly of quartz

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