ECOLOGY FOR FINAL
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ECOLOGY FOR FINAL
large group, one species in 1 time and 1 place (interbreed)
all populatin in a location, living together
community plus environment
interactions btwn organisms, and btwn organisms and envrionment
abiotic - living factors and
biotic - non living factors
role of organism in environment
on scale of earth - communities of a particular type
Characteristics of populations:
2)arrangment of organisms
3)density of population
birth rate - # of offspring per female per time
immigration and emigration
-if population is small= this is bad, reduced genetic variabilty, chance of extinction
arrangment of organisms:
random spacing (least common)
1) exponential growth - cant go on forever
2) logistic growth - "sigmoid growth"
k= carrying capacity of environment
k/2 harvesting population "optimal harvest population"
statistical analyze about population
-statistics about pop- births, deaths, marriage etc...
summary of statistics "life table"
cohort- original group
"proportion of individuals surviving" - common variable used.
: fish, insects
Birth data from survivors:
gather birth data, calulate pop. growth, overall from survivor data and birth data.
time it will take a population to double.
-How young, birth #rs, freq...
Human pop. growth:
why so rapid:
1) increased earth's carrying capacity
2) Expanded into more habitats
3) removed limiting factors (reduced diseases)
-cant go on forever (resources must double as well)
-living together or less permanently, of 2 or more diff kinds of organisms (species)
One species benefits and the other is neutral
epiphytes and tree (tree is neutral)
marine passengers (benefit)
host - does not benefit
: tapeworm *inside
: leech, ticks, mistletoe
both species benefit
nitrogen fixing bacteria and members of pea family
seed dispersal-- some cases
polinators and plants
mycrorrhizae - root/fungus relationship
huge affect on community (beavers)
ants and plants - BOOK
interaction between organism of same or diff. species for required by limited resources
interspecific - within
functional role of organism in community
no other competitive species present
niche w/ competitive species present
"Gause's competitive exclusion principle"
-only 1 species can occupy a particular niche @ a particular time. (The other goes extinct if they do try to do so)
lab - paramecium - consitent w/ gaue's principle
: new england warblers' 5 species shown in pic
-not sharing niche (each has their own)
beak size dictates size of food
can live in same envrionment if beak size is diff.