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study this material for your philosophy final
An argument is valid if it is the case that the truth of the premises
guarantees the truth of the conclusion.
An argument is sound if the argument is valid and all the statements,
including the conclusion are true.
Is moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and
theories. The problem with induction is that it makes generalizations about a
subject. For example the idea that all the ravens are true because up to today
all the ravens observed are black is in principle wrong.
A system that states that there are no objective truths.
A theory of knowledge that
asserts that knowledge comes only of primarily via sensory experience.
The belief that the world we live in can be understood by the use of
Is the idea that only minds and ideas exist.
A skeptics is one who
doesn’t think we have or even can have knowledge of a particular sort.
There exist two distinct substances (i.e. immaterial mind and material
Traditional approach to
explaining mind and behavior by way of concepts such as beliefs thoughts, pain
Type Identity theories hold that at
least some types of mental states are literally identical with some types of
Mental States are defined in terms
of their relations to Sensory input, other mental states, and behavioral
are no mental states—there are only brain states.
are the subjective or qualitative
properties of experiences. What it feels like, experientially.
Mentalstates have no casual sates, but physical states can cause mental states.
Allfacts are physical facts.
That feature of some mental states by which they are directed toward objects or
states of affairs in the world.
Traditional definition of God :
omnipotence, omniscience, Omnibenevolence,
and omnipresence. Meaning, the Judeo-Christian God is all-powerful, all
knowing, all loving, and ever-present.
A priori vs. a posteriori:
A priori is a type of knowledge that is
derived without experience or observation. They are true regardless of
experiment or observation. For example
: 2 + 2 = 4. A posteriori is a type of
knowledge, which is derived through experience or observation.
that do not require an explanation. a brute fact is one whose truth does
not depend on some more fundamental fact or facts.
things being equal, a simpler explanation is better than a more complex
one." It tries to explain the reasons why sometimes the increase in
population is not necessary.
Objections against the Ontological argument:
1) Anselm: 1 Suppose god existed only in the understanding.
2. It could have existed in reality as well.
3. If it existed in reality it would have been greater.
4. Therefore, a
GCB could have been greater.
5. 4 is absurd
6. Therefore, a
GCB exists not only in the --------------------understanding,
but in reality as well.
2) Guanil0’s Objection
: If the argument succeds,
then we can prove the existence of things, which we know, don’t exist (e.g. the
: Existence is not a property. Existence is a
precondition for having
properties. Kant says that premise 3 is false . Existence is about
correspondence between an idea and the world.
4) GCG & possibility
: In order for the
GCB to be possible i.e. for 2 to be true, one must show that there is a limit
to how great a being can be.
First Pass (Aquinas’s 2nd way)
1. Everything has a cause
2. Nothing can cause itself.
3. Causal chains cannot go back infinitely into the past.
4. There must be a first cause.
: it is a basic
presupposition that we all make. Nature is not bound to satisfy our
Second Pass ( Clarke)
1. Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR)
2. Every being is either dependent or self existent.
3. Not every being can be dependent
4. There exists a self existent being
Principle of Sufficient Reason:
There must be an explanation for the existence of every being and every fact.
A being which is explained by something other than itself.
A self that is accounted for by its own nature.
3 Objections for the cosmological argument:
1) Why cant there be an infinite chain of dependent
beings…-violates the PSR.
2) Why believe PSR is true?
3) Either is true that everything has a cause or it isn’t. Then God has a cause. Then why not
allow that the universe is doesn’t require a cause.
Replies to the Cosmological argument:
A: it is institutively true.
Problem:it is not unanimous
B: It isa basic presupposition that we all make.
Problem:Nature is not bound to satisfy our presuppositions.
***Argument from Design***
Argument form analogy
Inferring that 2 objects are similar insome respect on the basis of the fact that they are similar in other respects.
Complex Order Adaptation of means to ends… It has a purpuse and it is well suited for accomplishing that purpose.
Hume’s three objections:
1) The argument rests on a weak analogy.
The greater the dissimilarity
between the objects in question, the weaker the analogy.
2) We can observe the creation of watches
though we cannot observe the creation of the universe.
3) Evolution provides an alternative
explanation for the complex order of the universe.
The argument seems to imply that God was
also created by intelligent design.
1) There are several basic physical
constants that had to be just as they are in order for life to be possible.
2) The possibility of all of these constants
being just as they are is incredibly low.
3) Therefore it requires an explanation.
4) God made it so is a good explanation.
5) In fact, God made it so it is the best
explanation we have.
6) Therefore, we have good reason to believe
in the existence of God.
Objections for the argument for design:
1) other possible kinds of life.
2) Why not think That god is also fine tuned
3) Every possible combination of values for
the constants is equally impossible, so why does “our’ way require an
4) Multiverse hypothesis
: Points out the
existence of many distinct universes each with its own physical constants. They
would produce the unlikehood of our universe tuning out as id did.
Results of operations of nature…. ie Tornadoes,
Rape, murder, torture, and all that stuff.