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Judah Halevi- author of my heart is in the east.
- Hanigid Babylonia:
- Destoryed the first temple in Jerusalem. Cultic religion of Jews evolved here
Scribes and Rabbis:
Leaders during the religious evolution of Jews
Postulates that Moses was a Hyksos priest
Authors and reactors of the Mishnah were
Authors and redactors of the Talmud were
Hasmoneans led rebellion against
Books of Maccabees found in
the fall of the Masada
Bar Kochba led
the uprising against Rome in 137 C.E.
Secular leadership of the Babylonian Jewish community were
Who considered circumcision loathsome
�Synogague� from the Greek means
Anan ben David:
Wrote the Karaite (People of scripture)
R. Judah Hasnasi
- Moses ibn Ezra
- Sir John Monash:
- Commander of the Army in Australia in World War 1
Wrote the Mishneh Torah and Guide for the Perplexed. Wrote about afterlife in Aristotelian terms. Arabic commentary on the Misnah
Capital of the Ommayad Caliphate, largest and brightest city in 10th century in Europe
Spain in 10th and 11th Centuries was known for
A world of poverty
Mark Twain and Judaism:
Judaism is immortal.
Scribes and Rabbis:
- At the time of the religious evolution Jewish leadership was assumed by them.Josephus:
- Wrote the history of the fall of the Massada.Channeled messianism:
- means hope in the worst of times. Messianism is the belief in a messiah, a savior or redeemer. It's the hope that a messianic figure arises when a group is in great depair. A first example of this is
- Bar Kokhbah.
Conqured the Babylonian Empire. Established an empire stretching from India to Ethopia. Soon after conquering Babylon, he ordered the restoration of the Judean community and cult in the newly established Persian province of Judea. He permitted the building of the second temple.
A Judean King. Was exiled to Babylonia in 598. Central figure of a circle of exiled Judean aristocrats in Babylon
- a figure of evil. The cause of the second major Judean war was the plan of Hadrian to rebuild Jerusalem; and make it into a Roman city dedicated to Jupiter, under the name of Aelia Capitolina. This was intolerable to the Jewish population.
- Babolonian Jewish Colony was very important after 586 BCE--destruction of the first Temple that was assumed to be built my King Soloman and was destroyed by the Babylonians. The cultic religion of the Hebrews evolved into Judaism in Babylonia.
- Leader of the academy in Aragon. He was a famous talmudist and mystic. Attempted to play a modertaing role in the controversy over his writings and the permissibility of the study of philosophy that flared repeadetly in 13th century Provence and Spain. Represented the Jewish side in a staged spectacle against the Christians in 1263. He was forced to flee for his life and ended his days in Jerusalem.
On the banks of Volga in Russia. Established by the seventh century by a pagan Turkic people known as the Khazars. The persecutions in Nyzantium under Basil 1 induced many Byzantine Jews to flee here. The ruler of this Kingdom and his whole ruling class converted to Judaism probably around 740. The existence of the state was great comfort for Jews because they were their own masters there. Joseph was the kind. In 965 it received a crushing blow from the rising Russian power of Kiev. Thought the Khazars were of the 10 lost tribes.
Hasdai ibn Shaprut:
A physician by profession and a writer. Invited sages from Babylonia, North Africa and Southern Italy to Spain, supported them, established academics and provided them with libraries; and he was also patron to local scholars and Hebrew grammarians. Best known for the letter that he sent to the King of the Khazars. Wrote the Khazar correspondence
- Originally a manner of formulating religious ideas by quoting from the Bible and extending on it. Used to develop religious ideas and find the solutions to problems in religious law. Also became the name for a literary genrePiyyut�
- the poetry that was written for use in the synagogue service. The compisition of it was the most important artistic activity of the Jews throughout the middle ages.
- Crowned after David. Devoted a lot of time to the commercial development of Isreal. Established an alliance with Egypt and Tyre. Did a lot of trading between the two seas and along the Red sea. The result of all the acvitivity was prosperity and urban expansion, technological advances, population growth and the emergence of a cosmopolitan culture. Also encouraged the development of literary culture. Prosperity and expansion was a burden on the population because it exploited the masses. Upon death the kingdom fractured into two states.
- Dona Gracia Nazi
- wealthy jew who went to holland and tried to escape the inquisition. she converted to christianity and then went back to Judaisism. She had family money and she had ships. She ended up in Constaninocle in Turkey. Ideal place for Jews to go because their is no inquisition in turkey. she became extreamyl powerful and welathy with many ships. The ity of Ancona in Italy had predjudice laws against the jews that lived there and she set up a maritime blockade, so no one could get out until they relaxed their laws against the jews.
Dynasty was established by Simeon. Flourished during the long decline of the Seleucids. It was the ruling dynasty of Kingdom of Judah and surrounding regions. Some scholars refer to it as the independent Kingdom of Isreal. The Pharisees was in oppoisition to it.
Communities of Jews outside the land of Isreal. The communities of Judeans in Babylonia and Egypt may be considered the first and longest-lived Disporas.
- From Meinz. He said if you choose living here in Germany, you can only have one wife. He created protective and privacy rights for women. Bible
- Collection of Ancient Hebrew books. Divided into three parts in the jewish tradition: Torah, The Prophets, and the Hagiographa.Torah:
- Tells the story of the Isrealites, From Abraham's migration to the land of Canaan to the death of Moses. Tells how the Isralites descended to egypot, were enslaved, escaped, and wandered for 40 years until they reached the point from which they would cross the Jordan and reenter the land. Serves as the framework for the laws that were to govern the lives of the Isrealites in their land--10 commandments.Prophets
- Two different kinds of books. The first 4 continue the anrrative of the Torah, and the remaining books contain speeches of the prophets of IsraelAntiochus
- measures mark the beginning of one of the dominant themes of jewish history--the notion of judaism as a persecuted religion. Meausres against the Judean religion and culture which he wanted to harmozine with the religion and culture of the rest of his kingdom.
Byzantine Rule over Palestine
Greek speaking christain empire that ruled Palestine. From the 4th to 7th centuries, laws were gradually introduced limiting jews religious and commercial activities. Marraige between jews and christians was forbidden, and jews were forbidden from holding public office and from building new synogogues.
- Brought the jews of Palestine, Egypt, and Spain nearly instant relief from the persecutions, harassment and humiliation that they endured under Christian rule. Brought them into a single cultureal, economic and political system for the first time since the Diaspora. It was the most succesful Jewish Diaspora community of pre modern times. Jews and Christians living under Islam were considered dhimmis, protected subjects--and their status was defined by a set of rules known as the Pact of Umar. Geonim:
- Chief expositors of the Jewish religious tradition and the highest authorities in matter of religious law and practice. Gave the babylonian Talmud primacy over the Palestianian Talmud.Saadia ben Joseph
- One of the most energetic and influential of the Geonim. He was Gaon of Sura, whose career is considered a milestone in Jewish intellectual life. He was the first important rabbinic authority to write books in Arabic on Jewish law and religion. Cultivated a new type of Rabbi because he dealt with a wider range of intellectual concerns than had been traditional.
Charlemagne and his son Louis the Pious:
Charlemagne was a Frankish king and they encouraged Italian Jews to migrate to Provence and the Rhineland. The region was called Ashkenaz and its jews therefore are called Ashkenzic. Their status there was defined by land. During the time of these leaders the jews prospered and spread geogrpahically eastward to central europe and westward to france and england. The crusades made the Ashkenaz jews suffer.
Rabbi Solomon Halevi:
- Bishop of Burgos.Ferdinand and Isabella:
- 1494--Kicked out the last Jew from Spain. Introduced the inquisition into Spain. Their marraige led to the union of Catile and Argaon--n effect, creating the kingdom of Spain.
- Came into power after the fall of the Byzantine rule. Center of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for voer 6 centuries. Permitted its subject peoples considerable religious freedom. New Golden age of Spanish Jewry. Ottoman Jewry had dominance of the Spanish language over the affairs of the Jewish community. No common langugage that the jews felt pressured to adapt. Safed
- Town in the mountainous Upper Glilee region of Israel, inhabited today by artisits. Before the explusion of Jews from spain it had a small population. Turned into an otherworldy pace dominated by scholarship, prayer, and nontraditional, extreme ascetic practices such as midnight vigils and extendd fasting.
- 3 Jewish Festivals:
- Sukkot1.harvest festival 2. Wandering of Jews in the wilderness for 40 years 3. The meaning you give it in terms of your existence. (Goldstein says it means homelessness)ShavuotBegins as an agricultural pilgrimage. Giving of 10 commandments .Learning and studying .Passover .Spring harvest .Exodus from Egypt, freeing slaves. terseary meaning figure it out for yourself. Eat matzah, because yeast is forbidden.
Two movements of Judaism:
- Found in the beginning of the 19th century in Germany
- Rabbi Abraham Geiger--he was German and from Hamburg and he began to do things that the Orthodox dissaproved of. For example, men and women were supposed to be seperated from men and he thought this was ridiculous. He thought we should still keep Kosher but that you should be able to turn a light on and off on Sabath, and that we should be able to drive, etc.
- - He kept Kosher but didn't necessarily incourage it
- -Minimalist behavior
- -90 percent eat pork
- -Reform group shrinking because people are marrying out of religion
- -Were acculturated in Germany, but not assimilsted. KNOW DIFFERENCE
- Founder was Zacharia Frankel
- Dark world--world of the plague.
- Between 500 and 1300 was a period of tremendous growth enlightenment and thought for the jews. The Talumud was written, The Shum took root, Muslim Spain. Then the Renaissance came along
Cum Nimis Absurdum
"with great absurdity"--how can jews live with civilized christians and the answer is they aren't, they are in inclsoed communities called Ghettos. Jews had to wear some distinugishing thing about their clothing so people knew they were a jew. Generally it was a circle on their clothes.
Sarah Copia Salem:
is living in a ghetto in venice and is accused by a priest for not believing in life after death. She was accused of Jewish Harisy, and she defended herself and wrote a manifesto.. The poet Ansaldo Ceba tried to convert Sara.
Can't touch a women under any circumstance. Women on their period can't touch any men not even their husband
collected tales of the Hasseden and wrote a book called I and Thou.
Rabbi Abraham Geiger-
German from Hamberg, he did things that the orthodox disapproved of. Women were separated from men.
Reasons why God didn't write the bible:
Incouragable son-->death. Leprocie. The shabbath violation-->death. the susepcted adultrous-->death. homosexuality
Rabbi Yitz Greenberg-
He said I don�t care what you call yourself you should be ashamed, meaning that no one is perfect. This didn�t have to do with orthodox.
Age of faith-
people thought everything had to do with god.
Age of reason-
18th century, enlightenment, begins with voltaive who was a deist. Jewish scholars.
response to the suffering of the jews
of the father- child follows religion of father
child fathers religion of the mother, typical in Judaism.
Haskalah- Jewish enlightenment. He thought Jews needed to be modern people and learn pure German. He translated the bible into German. He helped create the Haskalah by Napoleon Bohopart. .He said be a Jew at home, but a mench on the street.
General Grant�s Infamy:
General Ulysses S. Grant initiated one of the most blatant official episodes of anti- Semitism in the 19th century. He punished jews because his father had a bsd relationship with jews. .Issued General Order No. 11: expelled Jews from Kentucky, Tennessee and Missippi. .The cause of the expulsion was the raging black market in southern cotton. He issued this trade to prevent Jews from trading cotton. In 1862. Eventually, Grant transcended his anti Semitic reputation. He carried the Jewish vote in the election of 1868 and named several Jews to high office.
- A formulation of principles agreed upon by the reform movement in 1885. �After dinner that wasn�t Kosher�called Trief Banquet. conservative movement started
- It symbolized the merger of the eastern US and Germanic oriented wings of Reform Judaism.
- Eastern wing previously led by David Einhorn and the Isaac Wise led the Germanic wing (western)
- Major statement of the basic tenets of Reform Judaism until its revision by the CCAR in Ohio 1937.
- Often referred to as Classical Reform Juduaism.
Crescas and Profit Duran-
wrote �Refutation of the Christian principles� it attacked Christians and went after how a women gives birth. Profit Duran�s letter on the conversation of his friend David Bonet Bongoron reflected the tragic contradictions raging in the souls of the Jewish converts who tried to justify their apostasy to themselves. Important document of controversy between Jews and Christians.
Marginalization. There was a church in Rome where officials met and decided that Jews would have reduced rights. in 1215, took a big step toward segregation of Jews by creating the �hate Jew badge,� which labeled every single Jew as a shameful outcast. It also prohibited Jews from holding public office and form appearing in Public on Easter and certain other holy days. They were supposed to be different in the way they dressed. They also wanted the Jews to convert to Christianity.
The disputation of Barcelona:
- Took place in 1263 CE. It was a staged spectacle. The Christian spokesman was an apostate Jew. The Jewish spokesmen at the disputation was Nahmanides. Key arguments of Chirstian spokes peron were chosen from the Talmud. The dispute was about Jewish writings that proved Christian theological changes.
- Jewish spokesman was encouraged to either speak freely or defeat his enemy
- When the Rabbi blessed the kind he compared him to Cyrus
telling of the story of Passover.
Spanish Jews dominated. Gave religious freedom
metropolis of saphardic life and culture. Established first printing presses in Ottoman empire. International trade
Dona Inaz Gracia:
- Most powerful Sephardic grandes of the era
- Attempted to organize a boycott of jews of ottoman empire against Ancona to punish for burning 24 Marranos after letting them convert t Judaism
- Newphew: Don Joseph: attempted to turn Tyberias into a center for the manufacturing of woll and silk
- Most important of the revived Palestinian community
- Influential center of Jewish world
- Rabbi Issac Luria: known as the Ari�invented the Zohar�tried to explain the suffering of the Jews as cosmic events
Kabbalist .Believed he was the Messiah Performed ceremonies
Libyan and Yemeni:
Jewish communities migrated to Israel
- Started a revolt against the Poles with the Coassacks supported by Ukrainian peasants and Crimean Tartars
- Reduced the Jewish population of Poland because of the slaughter and by the resultant migration back to Western Europe
- Revived the study of ancient languages and culture, and scholars were freed from Church doctrines
- Johannes Reuchlin: Christian scholar who defended the Talmud
- Made Christian scholars more aware of Jewish Tradition, but no beneficial effect on life of jews
- Started by Martin Luther. Heightened anti jewish attitudes. �disgusting vermin�. He loved the Jews at first, but he became frustrated with the church and started Catholicism. At the end, he hated the Jews and wanted to burn all of their synagogues
- Church reactions to the Reformation�Counter Reformation (Council of Trent)
- Pope Paul IV ordered Jews of Rome be put in Ghettos (Foundry)
- Still Italian Jewish life flourished
Jewish Business women
Dutch Jewish community organization, tried to impose strict disciplines over jews and the books they read
- Wrote a critiwue of Judaism and Christianity called Tractatus Theologico-Politicus
- Insisted on the priority of reason; was excommunicated by Amsterdam Jews
- Influential in Diesm
- Touchstone of heresy among jews and christians
Thirty Years War:
- Encouraged growth of Jewish communities of central Europe
- Marks the beginning of Jewish involvement in finance and military supplies
- Examples: Samual Oppenheimer, Samson Wertheimer
Confirmed love of French jews
- Assembly of Jewish Notables and a rabbinic body
- Created Consistories
- Fall of Napolean was with the Hep!Hep! riots
- Causes Jews to loosen their ties with their religion
- Falsely convicted for treason in a celebrated anti-semetic trial in Paris in 1893
Highly respected writer who exposed French anti-semistism following that trial
Author of �Sullan Aruch�-�The Prepared Table�. The Sephardic code of Jewish law
Printing press in Venice
Henchman of Hitler. Only person executed in Israel
- God of Universe/above everything
- Maimonades, Spinoza
- one who is right there/listens to you, crys to you
- Nahman, Bhal Shen Tov
Pale of Settlement:
Areas where Jews were allowed to reside within the terretories they already lives and in some recently annexed from Turkey
Czar Alexander I:
issues Jewish statue�promised maximum liberties and minimum restrictions. Tried to get jews assimilated
Hasisism: popular movement about mysticism
- Founded by Israel Baal Shem
- Leaders were the Zaddikim
- Became a strong force for conservatism
- Arose in Poland
- Women dress weird/shave their heads so that they don�t look sexy to other men. Dress in all black to imitate Christian something
- Orthodox consider themselves more American
With the death of Czar came:
- May Laws of 1882: Expelled jews from villages, and confined them to the pale settlement
- The Jews felt the Red Army (communists) were their protector
- Started agricultural colonies
- �Jewish land�, �autonomous jewish region�
- Leaders were accused of having nationalistic tendancies
Issac Mayer Wise
Rabbi of Cincinatti. Founded. The Isrealite. Organized reform Judaism nationwide, and wanted to redefine Judaism for social justice
Anti Semitic Governor of New Amsterdam who was rebuffed by the Dutch West India Company
Jewish Theological Seminary:
- American Seminary of conservative Judaism
- Jews wanted to become American (immigrants) but didn�t want to eat pork etc, but wanted to give up being orthodox so Conservative offered them a middle ground�Solomon shecter was the leader of the movement�beg of 20th century
- Hebrew Union College of Reform
Main Orthodox seminary
During the depression he regulary denounced Jews on his weekly radio program
Famed Yiddish humorist whose writings inspired �Fidler on the Roof�
wrote short stories in Yiddish about Jewish life in Eastern Europe
Journalist from Wienna, covered Dryfus trial. Though jews should leave Europe and form own country. Father of modern Zionism
Huge rush of immigrants from Russia to NY� Jews lived in lower east packed in Tenenmants�Called the Red Light District
Triangle Shirt Waste Fire�
March 25th, 1911. 800 Young women/men who manufactured clothes�147 women and 140 men killed. Fire started on 8th floor . Led to formation of Unions in NY
founded the International ladies garment workers union (ILGWU)
Newspaper written in Yiddish. Had an advice column called Bintal Brif. Had to do with husbands that left wives in Poland to make money. The editor Abraham Cahau gave the advice. Also taught readers about baseball
Professor had a conception of history that could be broken in 2 ways. Lachryneose-sad. Anti-lachryneose-not sad
Holocaust word comes from a biblical word meaning fire or lost. 1938-1945 or 1933 which is when Hitler became dictator of Germany and Chansler and wrote a book called Mein Kaempf
Period between WW1 and WW2. A lot of the anger that the German felt because thought they should have won WW1. Treaty of Versailles forced Germans to pay damanges from WW1 and told Germany they would have a small military. Hitler came to power during this time of anger and blamed the Jews. Period of Jews leadership and prosperity
Prime Minister (assassinated) . His father was founder of German eletrics (AGE). Hitler came in and said Jews were way too powerful and was able to assemble a group
1935. Jews were stripped of all rights as German citizens
Kristallnacht�1938 (night of broken glass)
Riots in every city in Germany. Synoguoges were burned, and stores broken into
Conference in Wansee (suburb of Berlin)�1942
�Final Solution�. Exterminate the jews�started talking about gassing Jews
Jedwabne�Turn in Poland
Thousand of Jews slaughtered by the Poles. Jane Gross wrote a book about it called �The neighbors�
writes a book called Hitlers willing executioners saying Germans hated Jews from the Getco. Dating back to 1215�4th lateran council
Napolean Theory of Lucy Davidowitz
Beginning of 19th century when Napolean reached Germany, Lucy said Germans rebelled cause it was shoved down their throat that they must like Jews
1944: Steven S Wise (Rabbi)and Phelix Frankfort (Justice of Supreme Court)
had a meeting with Roosevelt to bomb tracks leading to concentration camps. Roosevelt said no because if he did he�d be starting a Jewish war and he�s not prepared to stand in front of Coughlin and Henry Ford and other anti semites
Italien writer about Holocaust
leader of German Jewish life. Stayed back during the Holocaust and got liberated by Jewish troops. Leo Baeck college in London�liberal Rabbis
wrote a book called Eichmann in Jeruselum. Eichmann was a cournel and was incharge of Final Solution. Escaped in 1945 to Argentina and got tracked down and brought back to Jeruselum and said �I was only following orders�. Hannah covered his trial and said he was a Buereaucrat invented the term BENALITY OF EVIL. She said Jews never resisted
Claude Lantzman �ShOAH� (Hebrew for Holocaust
Greece city called Solonika where Nazis came and took people to concentration camps. He jumped off train and said the �Maccabees have arrived at Ausuwitz�
rallied the people of Warsaw Ghetto and resisted and fought back. In the end the Ghetto was demolished
The Last of the Just�
Lamed Vav�Legend of 36�in a box car with children
Begun with false charge against Dreyfus
(POLITICAL) Theo Herzl
who covered the trial thought there should be a jewish national homeland to escapt Eastern Europe anti-semistim�ending up being Palestine now known as Israel. 1897�createed first Zionest congress in Bazel Switzerland
Created Asitone, and was a non political President of Palestine?
- 1918: Should be a Jewish national homeland in Palestine
- 1948: Zionist community created
- Ben Gariom: First prime Minister of Palestine
thought Zionism should be structured around LABOR
Waves of Immigration
BILV 1882: kids my age. Russian 1903. Post WW1: Labor movement. Non-Ideological Poland. Illigeal 1946: Jews secretly came after Holocaust. Sephardic. Russian 1986
Johnson Read Act:
- 1924: restricted immigration in US�I think 5th wave
- Jackson Vanik Law:
- Free immigration from other countries where they were oppressing people
War of terrorism and attrition against Israel by suicidal bombers
4 Wars against Israel:
- 1948: War of Independence: 600,000 Jews against 42 million Arabs�U.N. cease fire stopped it
- Sinai Campaign 1956: England and france attacked Egypt cutting off shipping in Canal
- 1967 6 Day War: iraticatee the State of Israel. Israel wiped out Egypt in one day
- 1973: Day of attonement War. Yomkipour
- Tons of Causalties in Israel but nothing changed between boarders
AIPAC (right wing):
- American Israel Public Affairs Committee
- Think Arabs will destroy Israel
Prime Minister os Israel
APN: American for Peace Now
Say we should give land back to Arabs
Jews in Soviet Union:
- Neon Gratski�founded
- Situation deteriorated. Jews wanted to go to Israel but Soviets locked the doors. No immigration
- SSSJ: students who made the impoverished condition of Jews known
- Helsinki Agreement: Agreement signed that families that were separated could be reunited but Russians never honored it
- Early 1980�s: rally in American to advocate for Jews in Soviet Union
- � Jews in Soviet Union left
- 1/3 to Israel. 1/3 US (Cony Island). 1/3 to Germany (Berlin)