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what is universal trait theory?
what are behaviors that leaders have?
leadership behaviors can be learned
consideration and initiating structure
what is consideration?
- leader behavior that is indictive of friendship, mutual trust, respect and warmth towards subordinate
- -for younger or inexperienced players
what is initiating structure?
- clearly defining the relationship between leader and subordinate
- -task motivated
what is smith's sport personality contingency model?
model describes how a leaders personality interacts with the situation
what is behavioral signature?
coaches have behavioral signature that is a function of their personality, situation, and CAPS
what is a personality paradox?
personality doesnt change but the situation may
what is the coaching behavior assessment system?
who is this given to?
- types of behaviors recorded when
- -players perform well
- -players make mistake
- -player misbehaves
- spontaneous behaviors that are
- -game related
- -game irrelevant
players and coaches
what is the sandwich approach to effective coaching?
- postive reinforcement
those who play certain central positions on the playing field benefit from what?
greater future leadership oppurtunities
catcher and pitcher
what is task dependence?
refers to the interaction between players on the same team
what is propinquity?
refers to the observability and visibilty on the playing field
what does centrality mean?
usually enjoy what postition in the future?
means to be playing more than the middle field, its means playing in a position of high task dependance and high propinquity
what is stacking?
disproportionate placement of minorties into positions of low centrality relative to task dependence and propinquity
research has showed what for stacking and minorities?
underrepresented in central positions where oppurtunities for leadership are greatest
why is there decline in black major league players?
- financial reasons
- baseball cannot match the "buzz" other sports make
- few black roles currently exsist
what is anxiolytic effects of exercise?
anxiety reducing effects of exercise
what is acute exercise?
what is chronic exercise?
- exercise that is long term
- ex. 12 months
what is aerobic exercise?
sufficient oxygen avaiable for continuous exercise
what is anaerobic exercise?
- exercise with oxygen debt
- ex. weight lifting
what did aerobic exercise intensity research find?
moderate intensity was the best to reduce negative effects
what is resistance?
exercise that involves the use of weights or weight training and more than 30 min.
what did research find about resistance exercise intensity?
moderate intense resistance exercise is superior
what is the ekkekakis dual model hypothesis?
different mechanisms which affective responses are generated
what does ekkekakis dual model hypothesis think about lactate threshold and exercise?
- exercise above lactate threshold should be percieved as unpleasant
- exercise below lactate threshold should percieved as pleasant
for the general population the mode of walking is effective in enhancing what?
for the general population the mode of walking outdoors is more effective in enhancing what?
psychological benefits than walking indoors
for the clincal populations the measurable benefits of regular exercise activity are what for individuals suffering from psychological disorders than normal individuals?
in elderly populations besides improved positive affect what are benefits are there?
perserving cognitive functioning that normally declines with age
what effect does music and exercise?
- improve positive effect
- can reduce fatigue symptoms
- increase relaxation
what effect does social enviroment and exercise ?
socially enriched enviroment can result in greater self revitalization and self efficacy
what type of relationship exsists between exercise and improved cognitive functioning?
greater exercise function and greater cognitive function
what shows positive relationship between exercise and cognitive functioning?
what reduced strength of relationship?
cause and effect relationship
what does not estabalish cause and effect relationship?
that two variables are correlated does not prove that one causes another
what are two approaches to identifying brain mechanisms that explain relationship?
- information processing speed
- executive function
what is information processing speed?
simple and complex measures of reaction time and response time
what is executive function?
higher order cognitive ability that controls basic cognitive functions
how do to measure executive function?
- tests such as:
- erickson flanker test
- stroop test
- complex reaction time test
what do research conclusions show regarding exercise and executive function?
- exercise can improve information processing speed
- exercise can improve higher brain function
- *prefrontal cortex
what is the amine hypothesis?
balance of neurotransmitter in brain = feel better
what is the endorphin hypothesis?
ex.) runners high
hormone in blood and brain = feel better
what are the stages of exercise adherance
- sendentary -> exercise adoption (T1)
- exercise adoption -> maintenance or dropout (T2)
- dropout -> exercise resumption (T3)
what motivates a sendentary individual to become physically active?
- knowledge of healthy lifestyle
- perception of self control
- good attitude
what determines if a person does not drop out?
- avaiable time
- behavioral coping skills
- group cohesion
what determines if a person does drop out?
- blue collar
- mood state
- physical discomfort
what is theory of reasoned action?
attitude + social norm cause intention to exercise which lead to exercise behavior
what is the theory of planned behavior?
exercise behavior with personalty, past behavior and self efficacy lead to exercise
what is the transtheoretical model applied to exercise?
- five dynamic stages in adopting a healthy long term exercise behavior
- interventions called process of change
what are the 5 processes of change?
definition: process of change
interventions to help a person move on from one stage to the next
what is the interaction hypothesis?
- cognitive - early stages
- behavioral- later stages
what is the self determination theory applied to exercise?
- chapter on self confidence and intrinsic motivation
- autonomy, competence and relatedness with exercise behavior -> instrinsc motivation
what are the self determination theory research findings?
- coercian are ineffective
- reinforcing motivation = positive
- rewards and threats are poor long term motivators
how is fitness a moderator of life stress?
buffer of life stress and reduces hypertension with fewer doctors visits needed
how is exercise linked to cancer?
- without cancer: lowers incidence of breast and colon cancer
- with cancer: improved psychological well being
how is exercise and immune system related?
- immune system stimulated by moderate exercise
- creates resistance to illness
what is stress inoculation?
refers to the ability of individuals to insulate against stressors of life through regular exercise
what is life stress?
accumulation of daily hassles and challenges of living out our lives
what does physical fitness moderate a relationship between?
life stress and illness
what are personality characteristics related to exercise behavior?
- lack of anxiety
- lack of shyness
exercise during reproductive years can reduce what risk?
chronic intense exercise beyond recommendation can lead to what?
reduction of the immune system
what is the best exercise load for the immune system
those with HIV can still do what type of exercise?
what is social physique anxiety?
when people percieve others evaluate their physiques negatively
what is appearance impression motivation?
level of motivation that an indivdiual has to present their physical appearance in a positive way
what is physical self concept?
perception that people have about themselves relative to the physical self
what is body image?
images or mental pictures that have about their own bodies
how can you measure body image?
what are the body image trends?
- dissatification increased
- women - motivated by media
- female athletes - want to be more muscular
what is the drive for muscularity?
desire to achieve an idealized muscular body type
what are psychological predictors of athletic injury?
- history of stressors
- coping resources
what is the stress and injury model ?
athletes inability to respond to the demands of potentially stressful athletic situation results in the stress response
what are personality factors effect how the athlete does?
- locus of control
- sense of coherance
- competitive trait anxiety
- instrinsic motivation
what might life stress and daily hassles lead to?
how can previous injury have an effect?
fear of reinjury
what are coping resources?
- coping behaviors
- social support
- stress management
- attentional stragety
what are coping behaviors?
behaviors that assist an individual in dealing with stressful situation
what is social support?
individuals who provide support including parents, friends, coaches
what are the 3 types of support?
how is stress management used?
reduces stress response associated with reduction in number of injuries
what is attentional strategy?
association (focus on body) and dissoation (focus on ipod)
how do interventions work with athletes?
can reduce number and severity of athletic injuries
what is pre-injury cognitive appraisal?
rethinking how one plans to address a particular stressful situation
what is pre-injury physiological/attention aspects?
modified through progressive relaxation and injury
what is rehabilitation rehearsal?
concious use of mental imagery for the purpose of effective coping with injury rehabilitation
what is injury rehabilitation intervention?
- goal setting
what is emotional disclosure paradigm?
writing about suppressed negative thoughts and feelings
what is pain management?
- pain tolerance
- ways of categorizing pain
- measuring percieved pain
- pain reducing techniques
- pain catastrophizing
what is pain tolerance?
- personality characteristics that have an impact upon cognitive appraisal, emotional response
- low pain tolerance = difficult rehabilitation
what is benign pain?
- harmless pain
- ex. chest pain
what is harmful pain?
what is subjective experience pain?
cannot be measured directly or felt by another
what is percieved pain?
intense and unpleasant pain on scale of 0-10
what is the sports inventory for pain ?
25 item inventory that measures five aspects of pain being expereinced
what are pain reducing techniques?
- pharmacological pain management - drugs short term
- nonpharmacolgical pain managment- association and dissociation
what is pain catastrophizing?
degree to which individuals focus on pain
when returning to competition what are athlete concerns?
- may not be ready
- fear of reinjury
what experiences are associated with a successful athlete return?
- high motivation
- positive and negative emotions
- does not rush decision
- copes with injury flare ups
what could cause career termination besides injury?
- coping resources
- financial plan
- social support
what is distrubted approach?
sport psychologist helps coach
what is the specialist approach?
hiring of sport psychologist for team
what are some of the benefits from recovering from an injury
- personal growth benefits
- performance enhancement
- physical and technical development
what are the effects of injury on teammates?
- injury contagion
- worry about injurying themselves
- planned interventions
what is injury contagion?
may arise when teammate sees another teammate get injured
what are anabolic steroids?
synthetic derivatives of testosterone that effect muscularity and mascunilty
what are the symptoms of steroids?
- lower voice
- more hair
- more acne
what biological effects do anabolic steroids have?
- increased body wt
- altered body composition
- increased muscle size and strength
- increased blood volume
- increased number of red blood cells
what are some of the psychological symptoms of steroids?
what is psychological expectancy effect?
- placebo effect
- athlete thinks drug will improve performance
what has the MLB done about it?
what are other banned drugs and substances?
- beta blockers
what are stimulants?
excites and increases awareness and energy
what are depressants?
sedatives believed to relieve tension and depression
what are diuretics?
reduce body weight through fluid elimination
what are beta blockers?
- steady and slow heart rate
- decrease performance anxiety
why do athletes use creatinine?
increase body mass and water retention
what does creatine do to performance?
- explosive outburst of energy
- reactions include: distress nausea
what is a dietary supplement?
HGH human growth hormone
how to combat drug abuse in sport?
- cognitive techniques
- behavioral teachniques
what are cognitive techniques to combat drug abuse
- coach shows concern for athletes
- team policy on drug abuse
what is the deterrence theory as a strategy to deter the use of drugs?
what is exercise dependence?
- addicted to exercise
- go through withdrawl/anxiety/moody without it
what are the characteristics of exercise dependent individuals?
- intention effects
- loss of control
what is tolerance?
increase frequency and intensity
what is withdrawl?
experience mood disturbance
what is intention effects?
go beyond intentions
what is loss of control?
cannot control amount of exercise
what conflict is created with exercise dependent individuals
occupational and social
what gender becomes more exercise dependent?
both the same
exercise dependence is seen with what other disorder?
what is anorexia nervosa?
- severe wt loss
- refusal to maintain normal wt
- intense fear of gaining wt
- 15% below normal body wt
what is bulimia nervosa?
- binge eating followed by purge
- loss of self control
- normal body wt
what is ED-NOS
does not contain all the criteria for diagnosis just behaviors
what is anorexia athletica?
- ED-NOS describes fear of obesity
- goal of being in sport is to not be fat
how do you diagnose a eating disorder
subclinical eating disorders are much more prevelant among who?
athletes - ED-NOS
what are unhealthy wt control measures used by subclinical athletes?
- diet pills
- fat free diets
what type of body image can lead to eating disorders?
what is body objectification theory?
thinness culture in which a female person comes to view her body as an object
whats involved in the female triad?
- disordered eating
- menstrual dysfunction
- low bone mineral density
factors that influence the incidence of eating disorders?
- sports encourging thinness
research shows a relationship between what type of exercise and development of eating disorders?
what is muscle dysmorphia?
preoccupation with notion that he is insufficiently muscular
bullying leads to what in men?
what is burnout?
what is the investman model of burnout?
- investment in activity
- too much = burnout
- enjoy sport = may cause less burnout
what are some causes of sport burnout?
- heavy training
- performance demands
- pressure to perform at high levels
- nagging injuries
- media and fan expectations
what are some symptoms of sport burnout?
- emotional/physical exhaustion
- reduced sense of accomplishment
- sport devaluation
- increased resting heart rate
- increased sleep loss
- decreased body wt
- increased colds
- increased muscle soreness
- increased mood disturbance
- decreased self esteem
- negative change in quality of personal interaction
recommendations on how to avoid burnout?
- play for own reasons
- balance sport with life
- not fun dont play
- relax take time off