lecture 2

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
151289
Filename:
lecture 2
Updated:
2012-04-30 21:41:04
Tags:
microbiology
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Description:
bacterial cell structure
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  1. Glycocalyx- capsule
    "sugar coat" capsule- tighly adhere to cell wall.

    • Help bacteria:
    • 1. adhere to our cells
    • 2. avoid phagocytosis
    • 3. sometimes trigger endocytosis into our cells (listeria and e. coli
  2. Glycocalyx- slime layer
    loosely attached to cell wall


    attach to teeth, form plaque, cavities, gum disease, leads to bacteremia and heart disease
  3. Flagella
    consist of fillament, hook, and basal body.

    helps propel bacteria
  4. monotrichous
    one flagellum
  5. peritrichous
    flagella all over

    e.coli, proteus
  6. fimbriae
    allow adherence to surfaces
  7. pili
    join to bacteria together for transfer of DNA- plasmids
  8. lysozyme
    break protien cross links in peptidoglycan cell wall
  9. cell wall made of
    peptidoglycan layer

    Gram - also has lipid layer
  10. resistance to antibiodics is due to
    • -less effective on gram -
    • - make enzyme that deactivates
    • - build cell wall differently
  11. inclusion
    storage vesicle for nutrients
  12. cell membrane made of
    -phosphlipids and protiens

    • - allow entry of nutrients-antibiotics come in w/nutrients
    • -site of ETC
  13. inhibiting protien synthesis

    (mode of action of antibiotics)
    • -aminoglycosides- gentamycin, streptomycin
    • - tetracycline


    can cause organ damage and inhibit ribosomes
  14. endospores
    bacterial DNA enclosed in thick protien coat
  15. endospore producers
    • clostridium- at end
    • bacillus- inside
  16. conditions that cause endospore production
    • lack of moisture
    • stressful temperature
    • too much/too little O2
    • not enough nutrients
    • overcrowding
  17. sporulation
    formation of endospore
  18. ways endospores can be destructed
    • autoclave
    • boiling
    • bleach
  19. Germination
    favorable conditions- start dividing and become vegetative cell again
  20. clostridium dificil
    diarrhea- overgrows in the colon

    enterotoxin causes water loss in intestinal cells
  21. clostridium tetani
    causes tetanus

    muscle cramping, rigidity
  22. clostridium botulinum
    food poisoning

    block muscle contraction, causes paralysis
  23. clostridium perfringes
    causes gangrene and intestinal issues

    dissolve connective tissue
  24. clostridium
    • gram +
    • obligate anaerobe
    • endospore forming
    • rod
  25. bacillus
    • gram +
    • endospore forming
    • chain
    • rods
  26. bacillus cereus
    food poisoning


    • emetic toxins (vomitting)
    • enterotoxins (diarrhea)
  27. bacillus anthracis
    anthrax

    • edema toxin (water balance)
    • lethal toxin ( kills macrophages)
  28. obligate aerobe
    require oxygen to grow
  29. facultative anaerobe
    can grow with or without O2 but better with O2
  30. obligate anaerobe
    grow without O2
  31. thermophiles
    grow best at high temperatures
  32. mesophiles
    grow best at room or body temperature
  33. psychrophiles
    grow at cold temperatures, including refrigerator
  34. binary fission- bacterial mitosis
    add cell wall, build seperating wall, and keeps elongating
  35. stages of bacterial growth
    • 1. lag
    • 2. log
    • 3. stationary
    • 4. death
  36. lag
    cells store up needed materials for division
  37. log
    cells are dividing rapidly
  38. stationary
    cell division and cell death are balanced population is stable
  39. death phase
    number of deaths is greater than the number of new cells formed
  40. purpose of cellular respiration
    produce energy in the form of ATP
  41. jobs of ATP
    transport and move, turn enzymes on and off
  42. ATP production- use of a sugar
    • glycolysis
    • fermentation
  43. glycolysis
    break sugar down into pyruvate-2 ATP

    -usually modified to ethanol or lactic acid
  44. fermentation
    converting pyruvate into ethanol, lactic acid, 2-3 butanediol

    fermentation is necessary if the organism cant use oxygen to extract pyruvate
  45. ATP production- use of an amno acid
    can be converte into pyruvate or other nutrients that can be used in the Krebs cycle and ETC
  46. ATP production- use of fatty acid
    converted into Acetyl COA, key substrate in the Krebs cycle

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