Psych of Personality Final Exam

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  1. What type of Research method examines the relationships among measurements?
    • Correlational Research
    • (Chapter 1)
  2. What type of Research Method manipulates a cause to determine its effect
    • Experimental Research
    • (Chapter 1)
  3. What is the effect called in experimental research?
    • Dependent Variable
    • (Chapter 1)
  4. What is the cause called in experimental research?
    • Indepedent Variable
    • (Chapter 1)
  5. What is the application of a personality theory to the study of an individual's life?
    • Psychiobiography
    • (Chapter 1)
  6. What is the intensive investigation of a single individual?
    • a Case Study
    • (Chapter 1)
  7. What was Jung's concept of the self
    • It is the total, integrated personality
    • Included all aspects apparent or not
    • (Jung)
  8. Jung: What is the aspect of a person's personality that adapts to the world? Also known as an individual's social identity.
    • Persona
    • (Jung)
  9. Jung: What is the unconscious complement to a person's conscious identity which is often experienced as dangerous as evil?
    • The Shadow
    • (Jung)
  10. Jung: What is the deeper, inherited part of the unconscious in a person that does not change according to a person's experience but rather is genetically obtained?
    • Collective Unconscious
    • (Jung)
    • Also analogized as a deep, concealed basement.
  11. Jung: What are referred to as "primordial images" within the collective unsconscious that function as "psychic instincts" according to Jung?
    • Archetypes
    • (Jung)
  12. What is the feminity that is part of the unconscious of every man called?
    • Anima
    • (Jung)
  13. What is the masculinity that is part of the unconscious of every woman called?
    • Animus
    • (Jung)
  14. Adler: When difficulties are perceived as too immense to be overcome to the point of stagnation of growth what is this called?
    Inferiority Complex
  15. What is the feeling of inferiority which is the source for striving in a person called?
    • Felt Minus
    • (Adler)
  16. According to Adler, What is the feeling of superiority, perfection, or totality called?
    • Felt Plus
    • (Adler)
  17. What would Adler call inherited inferiorities that he would consider the source of the felt minus?
    • Organ Inferiority
    • (Adler)
  18. When striving toward the felt plus emphasizes anger and competitiveness what kind of struggle is this?
    • The Aggressive Drive
    • (Adler)
  19. What would Adler call the subjective image a person has of their end goal which the source of his or her striving?
    • Fictional Finalism
    • (Adler)
  20. What is Erickson's Epigenetic Principle?
    A principle for psychosocial development, based on a biological model, in which parts emerge in order of increasing differentiation
  21. What are Erickson's stages of development?
    • 1. Trust vs. Mistrust
    • 2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
    • 3. Initiative vs. Guilt
    • 4. Industry vs. Inferiority
    • 5. Identity vs. Identity Confusion
    • 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation
    • 8. Integrity vs. Despair
  22. What role does culture play in each of the 8 different stages of development?
    • Stage 1: Religion - Hope
    • Stage 2: Law - Will
    • Stage 3: Ideal Prototypes - Purpose
    • Stage 4: Technological elements - Competence
    • Stage 5: Ideological Perspectives - Fidelity
    • Stage 6: Patterns of cooperation and competition - Love
    • Stage 7: Currents of Education and Tradition - Care
    • Stage 8: Wisdom - Wisdom

  23. What interpersonal orientation theorized by Horney emphasizes hostility toward others?
    • Moving Against
    • (Horney)
  24. What interpersonal orientation theorized by Horney emphasizes dependency on others?
    • Moving toward
    • (Horney)
  25. What interpersonal orientation theorized by Horney emphasizes separating oneself from others?
    • Moving Away
    • (Horney)
  26. If a person is using the self-effacing solution to cope with life, how are they relating to others??
    They will be attempting to solve neurotic conflict by seeking love and moving toward people.
  27. If a person is using the expansive solution to cope with life, how are they relating to others?
    They will be attempting to solve neurotic conflict by seeking master and moving against people.
  28. What did Allport call all the spects of a person that make for unity of a person's self or ego?
    the Proprium
  29. What is the statistical procedure used for determining a smaller number of dimensions in a data set from a large number of variables?
    • Functional Analysis
    • (Cattell)
  30. What type of data would Cattel categorize questionnaire and self report tests under?
  31. What type of data would Cattel categorize objective tests under?
  32. What type of data would Cattel categorize informational and history of an individual under?
  33. What did Cattel call the basic underlying traits of personality?
    Source Traits
  34. What is the statistic that shows what proportion of the variability of a trait in a particular population is associated with genetic variability called?
  35. What is the biologically based foundations of personality including such characteristic patterns of behavior as emotionality, activity, and sociability?
  36. According to biological theory, what is it that influences the various traits of personality?
  37. Who was it that suggested that an excess of any of the four bodily biles influenced a person's personality? What were the four biles?

    • Red Bile - Sanguine
    • Yellow bile - Choleric
    • Black Bile - Melancholic
    • Phlegm - Phlegmatic
  38. What theorist connected a temperament type (inhibited/uninhibited) to biological variables?
    Jerome Kagan
  39. Eysenck proposed that a strong and weak nervous system influenced what part of personality?
  40. What type of outcome stimulus is presented contingent on a response and has the effect of increasing the rate of responding?
    • Positive Reinforcer
    • (Skinner)
  41. What kind of outcome stimulus ends when a response occurs and has the effect of increasing the rate of responding?
    • Negative Reinforcement
    • (Skinner)
  42. What is the reinforcement of successive approximations of a response to increase the frequency of a response that originally has a zero base rate
    • Shaping
    • The idea is to "ease" a subject toward a new behavior.
  43. What type of learning is it when a subject is taught to respond only when a certain environmental stimuli is present?
    Discrimination Learning
  44. What is it called when a stimuli that was not present during learning is responded to because it is mistaken to be the discriminative stimuli?
    • Generalization
    • (like when a dog barks whether or not the owner says "spit" or "speak")
  45. What are cognitive factors within a person that are less global than traits and which influence how an individual adapts to the environment?
    • Cognitive Person Variables
    • Derived from cognition and social learning
    • (Miscel)
  46. What is Mischel's challenge?
    To replace the generalized trait concept with more refined analyses to understand when people behave consistently and when they discriminate among situations.
  47. What did Rogers believe was the force for growth and development that is innate in all organism?
    Actualizing Tendency
  48. What did Rogers believe was the inner sense within a person, which guides him or her in the directions of growth and health?
    Organismic Valuing Process
  49. What is the ideal self, according to Rogers?
    What a person feels he or she ought to be like.
  50. What does the real self contain according to Rogers?
    • the self that contains the actualizing tendency
    • when there is incongruence between the ideal self and real self person is denying their real self.
  51. What did Rogers feel toward "Social Forces"?
    He blamed them for causing a person to lose touch with their inner growth process. He believed people distrusted their feelings because they repeatedly heard that these feelings are bad
  52. What did Walter Miscel think about Traits?
    He believed there was not enough research evidence to support trait theory and suggested a revision of the theory.
  53. According to Bandura's theory, What is the subjective belief about what a person will be able to do?
  54. According to Mischel's Theory, which Expectancy focuses on the expectancy about what will happen if a person behaves in a particular way?
    Behavior-Outcome expectancy
  55. Bandura suggested that nothing can be learned if a person is not paying attention to the model from which that person is learning. What process is this?
    Attentional Process
  56. For a person to learn behavior, it must be remembered. Bandura suggested through verbal coding, and imaginative representation this process would help a person remember what a model has done. What is this process?
    Retention Process
  57. What term did Maslow use for his theory which emphasized its opposition to psychoanalysis and behaviorism?
    Third Force
  58. Maslow theorized an order progression of motives, from basic physical needs upward to motives of the most developed human beings. What is this ordered progression called and what are it's levels from bottom to top?
    • Hierarchy of Needs
    • List of Needs (Oriented Properly)
    • Self-Actualization
    • Esteem Needs
    • Love and Belonging Needs
    • Safety Needs
    • Physiological Needs
  59. What approach to science emphasizes the procedure over the content of which Maslow was against?
    Method Centered
  60. What approach to science emphasizes the subject matter over procedure?
    Problem Centered
  61. Allport said that from infancy on humans are "remarkably recognizable" even though they vary from situation to situation and across time. What part of his theory was he talking about when he said this?
    Consistency of Personality
  62. How much did Allport think social influence affected personality?
    Allport, being a personality psychologist as well as a social psychologist, looked at the interaction between the two. He believed it was the same heat that melted butter that also heated the egg. Saw Personality and Social Influence as Joint Influences
  63. What did Allport mean by Psychophysical systems?
    Systems that are subject to both Biological as well Psychological influences. (Example: Temperament)
  64. What was Allport's stance on heredity's influence on personality?
    "No Feature of personality is devoid of hereditary influence" - Gordon Allport
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Psych of Personality Final Exam
Flashcards for Psychology of Personality
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