BIO 205 Final Urinary System

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BIO 205 Final Urinary System
2012-04-30 23:31:49
biology thursday rosalyn pal urinary system

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  1. What are the Organs of the Urinary System?
    • Kidney
    • Ureter
    • Urinary Bladder
    • Urethra
  2. Kidney
    • Sits at T-12 (Thoracic Vertebrate 12)
    • Surrounded by a fatty layer, then dense connective tisssue, then more fat
    • Pretty Well Protected
    • Size of fist and shape of bean
  3. Ureter
    • Takes the urine from the kidney and takes it to the urinary bladder
    • Urine through peristalsis makes its way to bladder
    • Ureters don't come in from the top, but from the bottom, because now the bladder can enlare without knotting up the ureter
  4. Urinary Bladder
    • Transitional Epithelium
    • 3 openings
    • -2 for ureters
    • -1 for urethra
  5. Urethra
    • Goes to the outside
    • 8 inches in male
    • 1.5 inches in female
  6. Micturation (Voiding) Peeing
    • Bladder has sympathetic nervous system
    • Inernal sphincter relaxes --> smooth muscle in bladder contracts
    • Somatic nervous system for external and internal sphincter
    • Bladder has autonomic nervous stimulation
    • Internal sphincter relaxes, smooth muscle in bladder contracts, and pushes down on itself
  7. Functions of the Urinary system
    • Excrete metabolic wastes: urea, creatine, uric acid, ammonium
    • Nitrogen Based waste
    • When we break down amino acids, we get urea, which makes our pee smell
    • Ammonium is when liver is breaking down toxins
    • Creatinine is a product of breaking down muscle
    • Maintain water-salt and acid-base balance
    • Secrete hormones: Renin, erythropoietin, activate Vitamin D
    • Erythropoietin - Tells bones marrow to make red blood cells
  8. Kidney Structure
    • Calyces
    • Renal Vein
    • Renal Pelvis
    • Renal Medulla
    • Renal Cortex
    • Renal Artery

  9. Urine Process
    • Urine ismade in the renal pyramids
    • Dripped into the Calyx
    • Put into the Renal Pelvis
    • Into the Ureter
    • To the Urinary Bladder
    • Out the Urethra
  10. The Nephron
    • Glomerulus
    • Tubules
  11. Microscopic Kidney Structure
    • Glomerulus
    • Capillaries
    • Not for gas exchange this time
    • All arteriole in the glomerular capsule
    • Has to do with filtering stuff out of blood
    • Glomerular Capsule
    • Proximal Convoluted Tubule
    • Loop of Henle
    • Distal Convoluted Tubule
    • Collecting Duct
  12. Glomerulus
    • Tubular structure called the nephron filters blood to form urine
    • Network of capillaries that performs the first step of filtering blood
  13. Tubules
    • Proximal Convoluted Tubules
    • Loop of Henle
    • Distal Convoluted Tubules
    • Collecting Duct
  14. Juxta-Glomerular Apparatus*
    • Kidney has to do with our water content
    • Salt concentrations
    • Juxta=next to
  15. Urine Formation
    • 1. Glomerular Filtration - Filtration of the glomerulus
    • 2. Tubular Reabsorption - Sending stuff back to where it came from
    • 3. Tubular Secretion - Stuff that wasn't filtered that is still in

  16. Glomerular Filtration
    • Water, Glucose and Sodium can get through
    • Protein can get through if you have kidney damage
  17. Tubular Reabsorption
    • Descending Limb
    • -2/3 water leaves the tubule, because of concentration gradiant
    • Ascending Limb
    • -Use ATP to send sodium out, and water goes through diffusion
  18. Tubular Secretion
    • 2nd chance for stuff to get out of the blood
    • Getting hydrogen ions or drugs out
    • Takes Active Transport
    • ADH and aldosterone effect here
  19. Excretion
    What is left of original filtrate PLUS what is secreted enters renal pelvis for excretion
  20. Regulatory Functions of the Kidney
    • Water-salt balance
    • Maintain blood volume, thus blood pressure
    • Acid-Base balance
  21. Water-Salt Balance
    99% Sodium reabsorbed causes 90% water reabsorbed

    • Hormones involved:
    • -Renin --> Aldosterone (comes from adrenal gland and has to do with salt and water concentrations in the gland)
    • -Sodium Reabsorption
    • -Happening in the tubules
    • -ADH (Anti-Durietic Hormone) --> Keeps you from peeing out wtaer, so water goes to blood, and blood volume goes up and blood pressure goes up
    • -ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)
    • -ANP
  22. Diuretics
    • Increase urine flow
    • becaue more water in your urine
    • Caffeine increases renal blood flow and decreases sodium reabsorption
    • alcohol inhibits ADH
    • Water pills decrease sodium reabsorption
    • Smoking Decreases renal blood flow; thus, smoking and alcohol = no change
  23. Acid-Base Balance
    Blood is 7.4
  24. Maintaining Blood pH
    • Buffering systems - chemicals hat absorb extra H+ or extra OH-
    • Carbonic Acid/Bicarbonate (ECF)
    • CO2+H2O <--> H2CO3 (Carbonic Acid) <--> H++HCO3-
  25. Controlling Blood pH
    • Respiratory control - quick
    • "Blow off" CO2 to raise pH
    • Renal control
    • - Reabsorb bicarb into blood and/or excrete H+ into urine
    • - Smaller but can handle a lot mor eacid or a lot more base
  26. Kidney Failure
    • Go on dialysis
    • Machine that does the 3 steps
    • Hemodialysis
    • Measure urea, creatine,sodium concentrations, and weight
    • Make special solution for the gradient, so that the right things can diffuse through
  27. Peritoneal Dialysis
    • Same solution and catheter goes into abdomen
    • Flows by gravity
    • Drain out 4-8 hours every night and happens when you're asleep
    • Inside peritoneal cavity
  28. Kidney Transplants
    • Transplants get plugged in
    • Kidneys do not get taken out