Bio Warm Up April 30

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  1. What were the first seed plants?
  2. Of the phyla of living seed plants, which are gymnosperms?
    The first four
  3. What is the main difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms?
    Gymnosperm seeds do not develop within a fruit and angiosperm seeds do develop within a fruit
  4. Where do angiosperms come from?
    They evolved from gymnosperms
  5. What phylum of seed plants do angiosperms make up?
    The fith phylum
  6. What are the most recently evolved of all plant phyla?
  7. What has happened to the gametophytes of seed plants during the course of evolution?
    They have become highly reduced
  8. What two kinds of gametophytes do plants produce?
    • Microgametophyte
    • Megagametophyte
  9. What is a microgametophyte?
    A very tiny male gametophyte that produces sperm
  10. What is a megagametophyte?
    A relatively large female gametophyte that produces eggs
  11. What are microspores and where are they found?
    The spores that produce microgametophytes, found in pollen grains
  12. What are megaspores and where are they found?
    Spores that produce the megagametophytes found within ovules that are in an ovary
  13. What does a pollen grain consist of and what does it contain?
    A few haploid cells surrounded by a thick protective wall, contains a microgametophyte that developed from a microspore
  14. When does a ovule become a seed?
    When the egg inside of an ovule is fertilized
  15. How are pollen grains transported to female reproductive structure?
    By wind, insects or other animals
  16. What is pollination?
    The transportatino of pollen grains form a plant's male reporductive structures to a female reproductive structure of a plant of the same species
  17. What two things happen when a pollen grain reaches a female reproductive structure?
    It attaches to the stigma and cracks open
  18. What happens after a pollen grain cracks open?
    A pollen tube is formed from the pollen grain to an ovule enabling a sperm to pass directly to an egg
  19. What are most living gymnosperms?
  20. What do conifers include?
    Cedar, cypress, fir, hemlock, pine, redwood, spruce and yew
  21. What are the tallest living vascular plants?
    Giant Sequoia
  22. What are the oldest species of vascular plants?
    Bristlecone Pine
  23. What do most conifers have and how are they an adaptation?
    Needle-like leaves used for limiting water loss
  24. Where are most conifers found growing?
    In seasonally dry regions of the world
  25. What are many species of conifers very important sources of?
    Timber and pulp
  26. What two kinds of cones to conifers form?
    seed cones and pollen cones
  27. Where do see cones produce ovules?
    On the surface of thier scales
  28. For seed cones, what happens during pollinization?
    The scales of a seed cone are open, exposing the ovules
  29. Where do pollen cones produce pollen grains?
    Produce pollen grains within sacs that develop on the surface of their scales
  30. What are the characteristics of pollen grains in conifers?
    They are small and light, carried by wind to seed cones
  31. In pines and some other conifers, what does each pollen grain have?
    A pair of air sacs that help to carry it in the wind
  32. Why do pollen cones produce huge quantities of pllen grains?
    To insure that at least a few pollen grains will succeed in pollinating seed cones
  33. What often happens when pollen cones shed?
    The pollen grains form a yellow layer on the surfaces of ponds, lake, pavement and car windshields
  34. What happens when a pollen grain lands near the ovule on a scale of a female cone?
    A slender pollen tube grows out of the pollen grain and into the ovule
  35. Why does the embryo become dormant?
    To wait until conditions are favorable
  36. What is the life cycle of a conifer characterized by?
    A very large sporophyte (produces cones) alternating with tiny gametophytes (form on the scales of the cones)
  37. What is a seed?
    A sporophyte plant embryo surrounded by a protective coat
  38. What is a seed coat?
    The hard cover of a seed
  39. What is the seed coat formed from and what does it do?
    The sporophyte tissue of teh parent plant and protects the embryo and other tissues in seed from drying out
  40. What three ways have seeds enabled plants to become better adapted to living on land?
    • Dispersal
    • Nourishment
    • Dormancy
  41. How are seeds helpful through dispersal?
    Enable offsrping of plants to be dispersed to new locations so the parent and offspring don't compete for water, nutrients, light and living space and helps plant species to migrate to new habitats so as not to go extinct
  42. How are seeds helpful through nourishment?
    Embryo absorbs endosperm as nutrients before it grows roots
  43. How are seeds helpful through dormacy?
    Can be dormant until conditions are favorable
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Bio Warm Up April 30
2012-05-01 04:24:30
Bio April 30

Eat. Pray. Study Bio.
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