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what are the three major components of the spine?
how many vertebrae and where ?
motion segment? joints in this?
- spinal column, supporting structures, nueral elements
- 33, c7 t12 l5 5 sacral 4 coccygeal
- two adjacent vertebrae tissues.. fxnal unit of spine
- bodies sep by discs make joint l and r facets make up gliding type joints
what is a nueral arch?
what are the first two cervical called.. do?
why lumbar bigger?
what do facet joints and discs resist?
compressive loads by facet?
- hollow ring in verterbral body
- Atlas and axis
- flex/ext.. rotation
- reduces amnt of stress on body
- 80% of spines ability resist shear loads during rotation
- resist 30% spines ability to resist compression
discs how much spine height?
outer ring is? inner? made of?
discs sensy to?
most common form loading on spine?
pressure to discs does...?
- annulus fibrosus: fibrous cartilage
- nucleus pulposus: colloidal gel
- rotational strain
- dehydrates makes them shrink
what are the main ligs? do?
- ant. long ligament and post... connect all bodies of column
- supraspinous lig connects all spinous processes
- ligamentrum flavum connects laminae flexes duing ext and stretch during flex... in tension during ana pos to maintain stability and stress on discs = prestress
primary curves? secondary?
- thoracic and sacral because birth.. concave ant
- cervical and lumb.. dev over time
- lordosis is caused be weak abs, puts comp stress on post spine.. may be risk for low back pain
- kyphosis cause by congenital abnormality, can develop one or more wedge shaped verta.. biomech probs
flexion relaxation phenomenon?
trunk extensors tense during flexion but relax at full flexion. occurs at about 54% hip flex and 84% spine flex. posterior ligaments support completely.. leads to pain over time
it was believed that pressure in the ab cavity would produce a tensile force on the posterior spine off setting compression during lifting loads.. this may not be true, but intraabdominal pressure during lifting does keep trunks stability and reduces the likelihood of the back buckling
what is most common vertebral fracture? what called?
where are pars located? MOI?
what is spondylolisthesis?
- stress fracture of pars interarticularis weakest part of nueral arch
- spondylolysis.... bw inf and sup facets
- repeated axial loading of lumbar spine during hypersextension
- bilateral fracture of pars leads to ant slippage