BRM Final

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alik34
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BRM Final
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2012-05-01 06:02:42
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Behavioral Research Methods
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Behavioral Research Methods Final Exam
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  1. Brocca
    extirpation of parts- systematically destroying parts of brain and noting effects on behavior. important findings with wide generality were gleaned form single organisms
  2. Fechner
    • Sensory Thresholds
    • JNDs
    • First to apply statistcal methods to psychological problems
    • Variability within subjects
  3. Wundt
    • Objective introspection
    • Structuralism
    • First psychology lab in Germany
  4. Ebbinghaus
    • Nonsense syllable
    • Retention Curve
    • Repeated measures in one individual
  5. Pavlov
    • Classical Conditioning
    • Single organisms and replication with other organisms
    • Direct measurement
  6. Quetelet
    • Astronomer
    • Normal Curve
    • First to study individual differences
  7. Galton and Pearson
    • Correlation and factor analysis
    • Founded journal Biometricka
  8. Cattell and Farrand
    Simple mental tests to find individual differences in students at Columbia
  9. Fisher
    • ANOVA
    • Agriculture/soil plots comparisons- fate of individual plant irrelevant in context of yield of other plants in area
    • Inferences from sample to population
  10. Watson and Rayner
    Little Albert- first withdrawal design
  11. Problems with early case studies
    • Little experimental control over variables
    • Claims exaggerated
  12. Eysenck
    • Pooled case studies (clinical replication)
    • Success percentage not reliable
    • Between groups better
  13. Cambridge-Comerville youth study
    • One of first large between groups designs
    • Found that psychotherapy did not work
  14. Menninger Foundation
    Early, huge naturalistic study
  15. Process Research
    • Collects data during therapy, not just pre and post
    • Uses repeated measures
  16. Shapiro
    • Used process and outcome research by using repeated measurements to endpoint of therapy
    • Precise repeated measurements in individual and manipulation of variables in single-case design
  17. Bergin and Strupp
    Proposed experimental single-case approach to isolate mechanisms of change in therapy
  18. Bernard
    Advocated individual differences and said group averages and variance were misleading
  19. Allport
    • Individual differences
    • Champion of idiographic research
  20. Shontz
    Test established hypotheses on a representative participant and subjects who differed in some way
  21. Time series design vs. equivalent time series design
    • Time series- included baseline but still correlational (A-B)
    • Equivalent- Changing treatment in some way or withdrawing treatment- experimental design
  22. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
    • 1968
    • Experimental analysis of behavior- sophisticated methodology of individual subjects
  23. Two basic issues to any science
    • Variability- monitoring and finding sources of it
    • Generality- replication of single-case designs
  24. Sidman
    • Variability- easier to assume extrinsic variability and find sources of it to be precise
    • Stability within 5 percent range
    • Systematic vs. Direct replication
  25. Purpose of applied research
    make meaningful clinical or socially significant behavioral changes
  26. Problems with statistical signficance
    Ignores intersubject variability- can overestimate or underestimate treatment efficacy
  27. Three patterns of variability
    • 1. subject may not repond to established treatment
    • 2. subject improves with no treatment
    • 3. cyclical patterns emerge that override effect of IV
  28. Blocking
    • Averaging two or more data points
    • Can make trends more visible
    • Dangerous- can make investigator think variability has disappeared or is unimportant
  29. Three types of generality
    • 1. Across subjects
    • 2. Across implementers of treatment
    • 3. Across settings
  30. Limitations of generality in group designs
    • Need perfectly random sample on variety of variables
    • Limited availability of subjects with needed characteristic
    • Most fail to generalize across settings and therapists
    • More adequately random sample introduces more hetergeneity
  31. Direct replication vs. Systematic replication
    • Direct- parallels nonfactorial design with no-treatment control; exact replication of entire study with same implementer of treatment; only studies generality across clients
    • Systematic- parallels factorial design; replication with change in one, MAYBE two, variables; generality across clients, bx change agents, and settings can be examined; need 3-5 direct replications before systematic rep
  32. Applied Behavioral Analysis
    Behavior change methods developed by applied researchers who search for ways to change behavior under everyday circumstances
  33. Rule-governed vs. contingency-shaped behavior
    • Disadvantage of rule- rules often not fully accurate/complete and people may not follow rules because their bx is influenced by experience (contingencies)
    • Advantages of rule- more efficient; better when consequences are more costly
  34. Skinner's three inner causes
    • 1. Neural
    • 2. Psychic- "mind or personality"
    • 3. Conceptual - general qualities like intelligence, talents, abilities
  35. Group behavior
    • Combining data from individuals who are related in some way
    • Groups not biological organisms and cannot behave
  36. Lindsley
    Dead Man's Test
  37. Parsimony
    Avoiding fanciful explanations and explaining events in terms that are already well understood
  38. Behavior's strict definition
    • Biological
    • Only occurs at elevel of individual organisms
    • Involves movement
    • Interaction between organism and environment
    • Impacts the environment
  39. Pure vs. Quasi-Behavioral Research
    • Pure- methods that perserve the fundamental qualities of behavior in an uncontaminated form
    • Q-B- Data that originated from behavior but whose methods do not present behavior in an uncontaminated form
  40. Sources of control over experimental questions
    • Graduate training
    • Experimental literature
    • Observing behavior
    • Available resources
    • Experimental contingencies
    • Extra-experimental contingencies
  41. Thematic vs. independent research
    • thematic- related to other studies in specific way
    • independent- not connected/related to existing literature
  42. Considerations in selecting participant characteristics
    • 1. species
    • 2. gender
    • 3. age
    • 4. accessibility
    • 5. repertoire
    • 6. environmental history
  43. Considerations in choosing a response class
    • 1. compatibility with procedures
    • 2. sensitivity to IV
    • 3. influence by extraneous variables
    • 4. dimensional quantities
    • 5. measurability
  44. Measurement methods must be
    • 1. specific- guidlines
    • 2. observable- multple observers
    • 3. replicable - duplicated
  45. Measures standardized with repect to
    • 1. devices
    • 2. personnel
    • 3. time of day
    • 4. instructions
    • 5. environmental conditions (e.g., location)
  46. Two problems with relying on self-report data
    • 1. repeated assesment may not be capturing true change in outcome (people lie)
    • 2. validity in question
  47. 2 purposes baseline serves
    • 1. description- comparison to treatment
    • 2. prediction- level of target behavior attained in future
  48. Types of baselines
    • Stable
    • Deteriorating - trend in desired or undesired direction
    • Increasing-Decreasing
    • Decreasing-Increasing
    • Unstable- extreme variability with no trend
    • Unstable with pattern
  49. Two solutions for unstable baselines
    • Wait
    • attempt to determine causes of trend or variability
  50. Exceptions to changing one variable at a time
    • A and B almost identical
    • Treatment package (A-BC-A-BC)
    • Treatment package and one component of it (A-BC-B-BC)
  51. Musts when using withdrawal
    • Full staff/parent cooperation
    • Minimal withdrawal risks (e.g., injury)
    • Withdrawal will be relatively brief
    • Outside influences minimized throughout
    • Treatment implemented again ASAP
  52. Factors contributing to carryover effects
    • Changes in instruction
    • New conditioned reinforcers
    • Maintenance of behavior through naturally occuring contingencies
    • Differences in stimulus conditions
  53. Rusch and Kazdin's 3 types of response maintanence strategies
    • 1. Sequential withdrawal- withdraw one element of treatment once response acquired and then the second, etc.
    • 2. Partial withdrawal- in MB, treamtent from one removed
    • 3. Partial-sequential withdrawal strategy- treatment removed in other baselines too
  54. Behavioral assessment
    • 1. identification of meaningful responses and their controlling variables for the purpose of understanding/changing behavior
    • 2. priority on verbs over nouns
  55. Selection of behavior to assess
    • 1. social significance
    • 2. clinical significance
    • 3. organizational significance
    • 4. personal signficance
  56. 4 other considerations in selection of bxs to assess
    • 1. is it important to client?
    • 2. risk?
    • 3. affect functioning?
    • 4. reflect deviance?
  57. Temporal dimensions of behavior (2)
    • Latency
    • Duration
  58. Repeatability dimensions of behavior
    • 1. countability
    • 2. frequency
    • 3. interresponse time
    • 4. interval coding
    • 5. secondary measures (indirect/supplementary)
  59. Criteria for using self-report
    • 1. repeatability
    • 2. be relevant
    • 3. sensitive to change
    • 4. protection against biases
    • 5. reliability and validity
    • 6. populations norms
  60. Limitations of self-report
    • 1. data impossible to verify
    • 2. utility varies
    • 3. validity concerns
    • 4. reporter bias
    • 5. lack specificity
    • 6. may not correlate with objective measures
    • 7. reactive
    • 8. influenced by many variables (e.g., timing, belief, expectancy, motivation)
  61. 6 ways to measure behavior
    • 1. temorality
    • 2. repeatability
    • 3. products of bx
    • 4. behavior rating scales
    • 5. self-report
    • 6. physiological
  62. 4 general functional categories
    • 1. automatic
    • 2. social
    • 3. escape/avoidance
    • 4. tangible
  63. unit of analysis vs. unit of measurement
    • analysis- what is being studied
    • measurement- how much
  64. 3 general types of response classes
    • classical
    • operant
    • discriminated operant
  65. behavior vs. response class vs. response
    • behavior- portion of interaction with environment
    • response- specific instance of behavior (makes up class)
    • response class- group of responses that share commonalities
  66. adjunctive/evoked behavior
    function of intermittent schedule of reinforcement (i.e., can induce excessive unrelated behavior)
  67. using behavior's products has problems such as
    • determining ownership
    • can't be sure one product equals one behavior
    • don't know if topography is same for every product
  68. group response class definition types (3)
    • 1. collective, equivalent, interactive- collective and equal contributions through interaction (noise)
    • 2. collective, equivalent, noninteractive- collection of individuals who don't interact but respond in same way in same setting (consumer purchases)
    • 3. collective, nonequivalent- individual behavior contributes to collect outcome but contributions may differ and individuals may/may not interact (assembly line)
  69. considerations in selecting a response class (2)
    • specificity
    • sensitivity
  70. Measurement's 3 functions
    • description
    • comparison
    • prediction
  71. celeration
    change in frequency over time
  72. Factors that guide dimensional quantities
    • experimental question
    • reserach literature
    • target behavior
    • objectives of study
    • intervention procedures
  73. Threats to internal validity
    • 1. history
    • 2. maturation
    • 3. testing
    • 4. instrumentation
    • 5. attrition
    • 6. statistical regression
    • 7. multiple intervention interference
    • 8. instability
    • 9. selection biases
    • 10. diffusion of treatment
  74. History threat to internal validity
    environmental events that occur during study
  75. instrumentation threat to internal validity
    changes that occur because of changes in measuring instrument, observers, interviewers
  76. statistical regression threat to internal validity
    tendency for extreme scores to regress toward mean when measured again
  77. diffusion of treatment threat to internal validity
    control and experimental conditions don't remain distinct
  78. threats to external validity
    • 1. generality across participants
    • 2. generality across settings
    • 3. generality across response classes
    • 4. generality across times
    • 5. generality across behavior change agents
    • 6. reactive experimental arrangements
    • 7. reactive assessment
    • 8. pretest sensitization
    • 9. sequence effects
  79. reactive experimental arrangements
    behave differently because of status as participants
  80. case study (just A or just B phase) advantanges
    • 1. foster clinical innovation
    • 2. cast doubt on prior theoretical assumptions
    • 3. permit study of rare phenomena
    • 4. develop new technical skills
    • 5. result in refinement of clinical techniques
    • 6. support theoretical views
    • 7. provide data as point of departure for controlled investigations
    • 8. can be used when you have to react quickly
  81. case study disadvantages
    • 1. many uncontrolled factors
    • 2. evidence for improvement usually clinician's global impression and not measurement of behavior
    • 3. strong possibility of bias
    • 4. inability to control for internal and external threats to validity
  82. AB limitations
    • 1. don't know if change in responding is due to switching phases
    • 2. don't know if change due to intervention
    • 3. shows just one instance of change
    • 4. doesn't show what natural course of behavior would have been without intervention
  83. ABA advantages and limitations
    • ad:
    • 1. higher degree of certainty treatment is response for change
    • 2. predicts performance in future
    • dis:
    • 1. ends on baseline
    • 2. sequential confounding
  84. ABAB
    • strongest single-case design
    • practioners don't use as much bc it requires withdrawal
  85. Alternating treatment design other names
    • multiple schedule
    • multi-element
    • randomization
    • simulataneous treatment
    • multiple treatment
  86. alternating treatment advantages
    • 1. tell which treatment is effective
    • 2. no withdrawal
    • 3. contorls for history
    • 4. quicker
    • 5. controls for background trends because both treatments being compared against same background trends
    • 6. can begin with treatment
    • 7. trends are irrelevant (comparing just 2 treatments)
  87. alternating treatments disadvantages
    • 1. multiple treatment interference (sequence or carryover effects)
    • 2. only use with rapidly changing behaviors
    • 3. differences must be quite apparent
    • 4. can't use in drug treatments
    • 5. testing effect
  88. changing criterion design advantages and disadvantages
    • ad:
    • 1. useful for gradually changing bx over time
    • 2. may reach higher levels than a different design that isn't implemented for as much time and gradually
    • dis:
    • 1. determining causality difficult
    • 2. history as threat to internal validity
  89. multiple baseline advantages and disadvantages
    • ad:
    • 1. controls for threats to interval validity better than withdrawal
    • dis:
    • 1. baseline could get long
    • 2. clients must be treated in a certain order
    • 3. must have very comparable clients
    • 4. requires relatively stable baselines
    • 5. interdependence
  90. Single subject/time-series analysis can bridge S-P gap bc...
    • 1. more practical for clinicians (work with individual cases)
    • 2. Have baselines to compare (initial assessments)
    • 3. Help practitioners to be skeptics (must collect data to know if you're making a difference)
    • 4. provides feedback to clinician
    • 5. Tells if treatment works or which treatment is best
    • 6. Group statistics- Crud factor- add more participants to get bigger effect size
  91. Five Skinner principles not formally recognized by scientific methodologies
    • 1. When you run into something interesting, drop everything and study it
    • 2. Some ways of doing research are better than others
    • 3. People get lucky
    • 4. Apparatuses sometimes break down
    • 5. Serendipity
  92. Natural scientific values Skinner learned from his study of biology that are evident in his research (5)
    • 1. Experimental questions should ask about subject matter and the variables that influence it (not about theory)
    • 2. Variability is indicative of experimental control
    • 3. Value of data is related to degree of experimental control achieved
    • 4. Generality emerges from understanding controlling variables
    • 5. Experimental methods must be adapted to subject matter
  93. Convictions about behavior that guided Skinner's experimental tactics
    • 1. Behavior is an important subject matter in its own right
    • 2. Bx is a phenomenon resulting from interaction between organization and environment
    • 3. behavior-environment interactions occur through time
    • 4. natural unit of behavior analysis is the reponse class
    • 5. model that best describes behavior is the three term contingency
    • 6. bx is orderly when controlling variables are managed
    • 7. experimenter's bx must be viewed/managed in the same way as the subject's bx
  94. 6 reasons single case design is underutilized (from Hayes)
    • 1. undertaught
    • 2. not aimed at clinician
    • 3. associated with behaviorism
    • 4. clinicians don't distinguish between research and group design
    • 5. few outlets for clinical reserach
    • 6. clinical agencies provide little support for research
  95. Hayes' Essentials of single case methodology
    • 1. repeated measurement
    • 2. establishment of degree of intraclient variability
    • 3. specification of conditions
    • 4. replication
    • 5. attitude of investigative play
    • 6. creative use of design elements
  96. (Hayes) Within-series strategies (defn. and examples)
    • Changes within series of data points
    • Simple phase change (ABAB or BCBC)
    • Complex (B-BC-B; A-B-A-C-A; changing criterion)
  97. (hayes) between-series design
    alternating treatment or simultaneous treatment designs (comparing two or more series of data points)
  98. (Hayes) combined-series strategies
    multiple basline
  99. Browning article
    • Simultaneous treatment design
    • 3 different delivered 3 contingencies at the same time (verbal praise, verbal punishment, and ignoring bx)
    • Adv to STD- no replication of baseline; counter-balancing for sequence effects; statistical test available
  100. Stokes and Baer's generalization strategies (9)
    • 1. Train and hope
    • 2. Sequential modification (scheduling behavior change in desired conditions)
    • 3. Introduce naturally maintaining contingencies
    • 4. train sufficient exemplars (training enough models to generalize)
    • 5. train loosely (little control over contingencies)
    • 6. Use indiscriminable contingencies (intermittent schedules of reinforcement)
    • 7. Program common stimuli
    • 8. Mediate generalization (telling them?)
    • 9. train to generalize (treat generalization as response itself)
  101. 2 functions of replications
    • 1. reliability
    • 2. generality
  102. Breur
    First multiple baseline but didn't define variables well
  103. Permutation
    One of several possibile variations that a set or number of things can be arranged/ordered
  104. Free will vs. determination
    Thinking people have free will or that bx is not influenced by the environment limits our ability to grow or be more successful. If behavior is not caused by outside influences, studying bx would be impossible because there wouldn't be consistent relationships between bx and environmental variables. Instead, behavior is determined by other events.
  105. When should an intervention be replicated?
    • extraneous explanations/variables
    • small literature
    • contradicts literature
    • little experience with procedure
  106. Edgington
    Encouraged randomization when making alternating treatments design amenable to statistical analysis
  107. 4 types of extraneous variables
    • 1. Subject variables
    • 2. Treatment variables
    • 3. Procedural variables
    • 4. Environmental variables
  108. Watson & Workman
    nonconcurrent MB design- good with clients at different times; can rule out history as threat to internal validity
  109. 3 problems with correlation coefficients to measure IOA
    • 1. one observer scoring higher
    • 2. observers marking different bxs
    • 3. "crud factor"- increase participants increasing effect
  110. Vaganotic
    Defining phenomena based on variation, so meaning varies with each application
  111. Wolf & Social Validity
    • 1. Are the goals what society wants? (goals)
    • 2. Do the ends justify the means? (procedures)
    • 3. Are consumers satisfied with the results? (effects)
  112. 2 ways to assess multiple-treatment interference
    • 1. independent verification
    • 2. functional manipulation
  113. Bisu
    Pointed out that IOA needs to account for chance
  114. Clinical replication AKA field testing
    Using newly developed treatments in practice
  115. Determinstic vs. Stocastic
    • Deterministic- DV completely controlled by IV
    • Stocastic- DV controlled at least in part by other variables
  116. Willems article
    • Behavior doesn't happen in a vacuum
    • i.e., Eliminating or changing one behavior can result in another behavior appearing to satisfy function of previous behavior
  117. Houli, Bates, Purple article
    Simultaneous presentation of treatments
  118. Wacker article
    Sequential alternating treatment design- combo of alternating treatments and multiple baseline
  119. PAND
    • "Percentage of All Non-overlapping Data"
    • combined PND and r2 to remedy their deficiencies
    • Closly related to Phi
    • May be useful for effect size in multiple baseline and other longer single case research designs

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