A simple, involuntary response to a stimulus is called a ________.
Reflexes are e_______ in the sense that they are drawn out by stimuli that precede their occurrence.
A s________ reaction is an automatic defensive response to a sudden, unexpected stimulus; the o________ response consists of movements designed to facilitate attending to a stimulus.
Many simple reflexes are activated through a r______ a______ that consists of a(n) _______ neuron, a(n) _______ neuron, and a(n) ______ neuron (in that order).
Quickly jerking your hand or foot away from contact with an open flame or sharp object is a reflexive action know as a fl_____ response. In such cases, the perception of pain generally (precedes/follows)_____ the response.
A _____ _____ _____ is a fixed sequence of responses that occurs in reaction to a specific stimulus.
fixed action pattern
The specific stimulus that elicits a fixed action pattern is called a s______ stimulus or r_____.
Different species of spiders spin different kinds of webs. Web spinning of this sort can thus be considered a sp_____-sp______ behavior. Such behaviors used to be called i______, but some researchers dislike this term because it implies that the behavior is more (flexible/inflexible) _______than is actually the case.
An increase in the strength of a behavior following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus is called _______.
A decrease in the strength of a behavior following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus is called ______.
Learning to ignore the sound of dripping water is an example of ________; becoming increasingly aware of the sound of a jackhammer on the street below your apartment is an example of ______.
The fact that it has been several months since you noticed the sound of the fan in your home computer is an example of l__________-t________ habituation. Such habituation tends to build up (quickly/slowly) _______ and disappear (quickly/slowly) ________.
In general, sensitization is (less/more) ______ stimulus specific than habituation.
The presentation of a novel stimulus during a period of habituation can sometimes result in dis______, in which the habituated response (reappears/disappears) ______.
One factor that influences whether we habituate or become sensitized to a particular stimulus is the ______ of the eliciting stimulus.
In general, repeated presentations of a low-intensity stimulus result in ______, and repeated presentations of a high-intensity stimulus result in ______.
A stimulus of intermediate intensity will initially result in a period of ______ which is then followed by _______.
From an evolutionary standpoint, if a stiumulus is irrelevant or "safe," we tend to ______ to it, whereas if a stimulus is perceived as a signal of danger we will become _______ to it.
We often fail to _____ to stimuli (even if they are not actually dangerous) because our nervous system tends to "err on the side of caution" to keep us safe.
Classical conditioning is also known as P_______ conditioning or r______ conditioning.
In respondent conditioning, the behaviors themselves are called _______ behaviors or simply ______.
In the metronome example, the metronome is initially a(n) ______ stimulus because it (does/does not) _______ elicit salivation. The food, however, is a(n) stimulus that elicits a(n) _______ response of salivation.
During conditioning, the metronome can be labeled as either a(n) _______ stimulus or a(n) _______ stimulus.
Following conditioning, the metronome is a(n) ______ stimulus, and the salivation elicited by the metronome is a(n) _______ response.
Each pairing of the metronome and the food is called a c______ tr_______.
In the basic classical conditioning procedure, the (CS/US/NS) _______ is paired with the (CS/US/NS) _______, which in turn elicits the (CR/UR) _______. As a result, the first stimulus becomes a (CS/US/NS) ______, which elicits a (CR/UR) ______.
The CR is (often/always) ______ (similar/identical) ______ to the UR.
A CR that appears identical to the UR is almost always (less/more) intense.
In ______ conditioning, the US is an event that is usually considered unpleasant and that the organism avoids.
In ______ conditioning, the US is an event that is usually considered pleasant and that the organism seeks out.
Learning to associate the corner bar with the happy times you experience in that bar is an example of _____ conditioning.
Learning to associate your refrigerator with the nauseating smell of spoiled food is an example of ______ conditioning.
In a c_____ e______ response (CER) paradigm, the level of fear elicited by a CS is indicated by the degree to which the rat's rate of lever pressing for food (decreases/increases) ______ in the presence of that stimulus.
conditioned emotional response
The CER paradigm is also know as a c______ s______ paradigm.
The suppression ratio is the number of (pre-CS/CS/post-CS) _____ responses divided by the number of _____ responses plus the number of ______ responses.
Total suppression of behavior results in a suppression ratio of (.5/0) ___ whereas no suppression of behavior will result in a suppression ratio of around _____.
Conditioning associated with the removal of a US is known as ______ conditioning
Most of the basic principles of classical conditioning have been established using procedures that involve _______ conditioning.
A conditioned excitatory stimulus (an excitatory CS) is one that is associated with the (presentation/removal) _______ of a US; a conditioned inhibitory stimulus (an inhibitory CS) is one that is associated with the (presentation/removal) _______ of a US.
An excitatory CS for fear is one that will (elicit/suppress) ______ a fear response; an inhibitory CS for fear is one that will (elicit/suppress) ______ a fear response.
The most successful temporal arrangement for conditioning is delayed conditioning, in which the onset of the NS (precedes/follows) ______ the onset of the US, and the two stimuli (overlap/do not overlap) ______.
In delayed conditioning, the time between the onset of the NS and the onset of the US is called the ______ interval (abbreviated _______).
In trace conditioning, the (onset/offset) _____ and _____ of the NS precedes the _____ of the US.
In trace conditioning, the time between the _____ of the NS and the ______ of the US is called the _____ interval. Trace conditioning can be effective if this interval is relatively (long/short) _____.
In simultaneous conditioning, the _____ of the NS occurs at the same time as the _____ of the US. Simultaneous conditioning usually results in (good/poor) _____ conditioning.
In backward conditioning, the (US/NS) ____ is presented first and the (US/NS) ____ is presented later. Backward conditioning is generally considered to result in (good/poor) ____ conditioning.
Backward conditioning can result in excitatory conditioning of fear when the NS is a b_____ relevant stimulus for fear. Backward conditioning can also result in inhibitory conditioning when the NS signals the (presentation/removal) _____ of the US.
Conditioning procedure in which the US is an event that is usually considered pleasant and that an organism seeks out.
Conditioning procedure in which the US is an event that is usually considered unpleasant and that an organism avoids.
Conditioning procedure in which the onset of the NS follows the onset of the US
A process whereby one stimulus that does not elicit a certain response is associated with a second stimulus that does; as a result, the first stimulus also comes to elicit a response.
The response, often similar to the unconditioned response, that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus.
Any stimulus that, although initially neutral, comes to elicit a response because it has been associated with an unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioning procedure in which the onset of the NS precedes the onset of the US, and the 2 stimuli overlap.
The reappearance of a habituated response following the presetnation of a seemingly irrelevant novel stimulus.
Conditioning procedure in which the NS is associated with the presentation of a US.
fixed action pattern
A fixed sequence of responses elicited by a specific stimulus.
The automatic response of jerking one's hand or foot away from a hot or sharp object.
A decrease in the strength of an elicited behavior following repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus.
Conditioning procedure in which the NS is associated with the absence or removal of a US.
The automatic positioning of oneself to facilitate attending to a stimulus.
A neural structure that underlies many reflexes & consists of a sensory neuron, an interneuron, and a motor neuron.
A relatively simple, involuntary response to a stimulus.
An increase in the strength of an elicited behavior foloowing repeated presentations of the eliciting stimulus.
sign stimulus (or releaser)
A specific stimulus that elicits a fixed action pattern.
Conditioning procedure in which the onset of the NS and the onset of the US are simultaneous.
A defensive reaction to a sudden, unexpected stimulus, which involves automatic tightening of skeletal muscles and various hormonal and visceral changes.
Conditioning procedure in which the onset and offset of the NS precede the onset of the US.
The response that is naturally elicited by the unconditioned stimulus.