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What substance in milk is bacteriostatic and binds iron?
What cell plays a major role in clearing invading bacteria in the mammary gland?
What is the major immunoglobulin in milk?
What bacterial pathogens use the mammary gland as their principle site of persistence or their normal reservoir? 3
- Streptococcus agalactiae
- Staphylococcus aureus
- Mycoplasma sp.
What is the result of chronic infection of the mammary gland with Streptococcus agalactiae?
Thickened ducts and sinus mucosa
What is the most severe type of Staphylococcus aureus infection and when is it usually seen?
Gangrenous, usually around calving
What are the major virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus in mammary gland infections?
Extracellular products that enable the organism to adhere to epithelial surfaces
What type of mastitis is seen in herds where other forms of mastitis have been controlled?
Mycoplasma bovis infection
What bacterial pathogens are common environmental bacteria and gain entry via contamination of the teat? 4
- Escherichia coli
- Enterobacter aerogenes
- Klebsiella pneumoniae
- Arcanobacterium pyogenes
In coliform mastitis, what usually causes the most damage?
Endotoxin acts on vasculature
What are some common pathogens that cause mastitis in ewes? 2
- Mycoplasma agalactiae
- Mannheimia haemolytica
What are some common pathogens that cause mastitis in does? 2
- Mycoplasma agalactiae
- Mycoplasma mycoides ssp.
What type of mammary hyperplasia occurs in young intact female cats in one or several glands?
Mammary Fibroadenomatous Hyperplasia
What type of mammary hyperplasia occurs in intact, lactating or non-lactating bitches and is most numerous in caudal two glands?
Mammary Lobular Hyperplasia
In what animals do you primarily see mammary adenomas/carcinomas?
- Dogs (80% benign)
- Cats (90% malignant)
What is formed from the mesonephric (Wolffian) duct in the male? 3
- Ductus deferens
- Seminal vesicles
What is formed from the urogenital sinus in the male? Female?
- Male - Prostate, bulbourethral gland
- Female - Caudal vagina
What is formed from the Paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct in the female? 4
- Anterior vagina
What protein induces the undifferentiated gonad to become a testis and produce sertoli cells?
What hormone, produced by the Sertoli cells, leads to the regression of the paramesonephric ducts?
Mullerian Inhibitory factor (MIF)
What hormone induces the development of penis, scrotum and prostate?
Dihydrotestosterone (testosterone from Leydig cells)
What has two or more cell types, each with different chromosomal makeups?
Female calves born co-twin with a male calf will be what?
What condition is seen in Saanan and Toggenberg goats and occurs as a gene deletion on chromosome 1 affecting the expression of FOXL2 resulting in an XX sex reversal?
Polled intersex sydrome (PIS)
In what breed of dog is XX sex reversal most common?
American cocker spaniel
Testicular feminization, caused by androgen insensitivity, is most common in what animal?
What is the result of testicular feminization in horses? 4
- Mullerian duct inhibitory factor is produced, so Mullerian ducts regress
- DTH produced but no receptors
- Wolffian ducts regress
- External genitalia are female in type
In what animals is persistent mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) seen in? 2
- Miniature schnauzers
Do male dogs with PMDS have normal external genitalia?