Fn2 test 2[1].txt

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Fn2 test 2[1].txt
2012-05-01 09:05:13
FN2 33

Ch 33
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  1. Growth
    Inc in physical size and wt
  2. Development
    Gradual inc in capability or function
  3. Maturation
    Inc in competence and adaptability
  4. Differentiation
    Development from simple to complex
  5. Cephalocaudal
    Development that proceeds from head down
  6. Proximodistal
    Growth from the center of the body to the extremities
  7. Biologic growth and development basics
    • Ht occurs as a result of skeletal growth; stable measurement of general growth
    • Active growth in length takes place in epiphyseal growth plate
    • Lymphoid tissue is well developed at birth; reaches maximum size by 10-12 years and then stabilizes
    • Metabolism is highest in newborn infants and progressively decreases throughout lide; higher in boys
  8. Temperament
    • Refers to the way in which a person deals with life
    • Easy child
    • Difficult child
    • Slow-to-warm-up child
    • Remaining 35% do not fit categories
  9. Easy child
    • Even tempered, predictable, open and adaptable
    • 40% of children
  10. Difficult child
    • Highly active, irritable, and irregular
    • Moods are intense
    • 10% of children
  11. Slow-to-warm-up child
    • Adapt slowly, inactive, moody
    • 15% of children
  12. Freud's theory of psychosexual development
    • Personality is a structure with three parts:
    • Id
    • Ego
    • Super ego
  13. -id
    • Present at brth
    • drives the individual to seek pleasure
  14. Ego
    • Realistic part of the person
    • develops during infancy
    • Seeks acceptance
  15. Super ego
    • Develops during childhood
    • Seeks moral and ethical system
  16. Piagets theory of cognitive development
    • Sensorimotor--birth to 2yrs; learn about world through input
    • Pre-operational--2 to 7yrs; thinks by using words as symbols but logic not well developed
    • Concrete operation--7 to 11yrs; transductive reasoning allows understanding of cause and effect
    • Formal operation--11yrs to adult; fully mature intellectual thoughts
  17. Kolbergs theory of moral development
    • Preconventional--stage 4 to 7yrs; decisions aare based on desire to please and avoid punishment
    • Conventional--stage7 to 11yrs; conscience and internal set of standards becomes important. Rules must be followed.
    • Post conventional--12yrs and older; internal ethical standards are present which are used in decision making. Social responsibility is recognized.
  18. Self concept includes
    All notions, beliefs, and convictions that constitute an individuals self knowledge and that influence that individuals relationship with others
  19. Body image is
    Subjective concepts and attitudes that individuals have toward their own bodies
  20. Self esteem refers to
    An overall evaluation of oneself; refers to a personal, subjective judgeent of one's worthiness
  21. Influences on development
    • Parental contributions beginning at conception
    • Family structure and parenting style effect the childs environment
    • Cultural influences-traditional practices of groups
    • Nutrition
    • Socioeconomic level
    • Dise├áse
    • Environmental hazards
    • Stress in childhood
  22. G&D for infants (birth to 1yr)
    • Most rapid period of growth
    • Wt double by 5 mo.; triple by 1 yr
    • Body organs and systems are not mature
    • Nervous system begins demonstrating control
    • Cognitive development involves maturation of the cells
    • Relies on interactions with primary care providers
    • Solitary play but enjoys presence of others
    • Communcates with two interactions at a few weeks
    • Understands (receptive) more words than can speak(expressive)
  23. Developmental stages infant
    • Physical: most dramatic period of rapid growth and dvelopment
    • Psychosocial: erikson's theory of trust vs mistrust
    • Cognitive: piagets sensorimotor skills
    • Behavioral: motor skills and language
    • Physical examsL frequent due to many milestones and immunizations
  24. G&d toddler (1-3yrs)
    • Sometimes called forst adolescence due to independence adn negativism
    • Child limits food intake
    • Gross moto develops rapidly
    • Moves from sensorimotor to preoperational stage of development
    • Rooted in a trusting relationship
    • Parallel play-play at the same time as other children but not necessarily together
    • Very ttemperamental period
  25. Developmental staged toddler
    • Phyiscal: potbelly, sway back, short bowed legs
    • Psychosocial: erikson's autonomy vs shame and doubt
    • Cognitive: piaget's preoperational stage
    • Behavioral: motor and language skills
    • Physical exams: less frequent and more routine, immunizations complete by age 2
  26. G&d preschool child (306yrs)
    • Able to speak clearly; language well developed
    • Slow growth mostly in long bones
    • Physical skills improve (drawing and learning)
    • Preoperational thought is evident, words have meaning
    • Magical thinking is believed to be true
    • Interact with others during play (associative play)
  27. Developmental stages preschool
    • Physical: slims and elongates, loss of "baby" look
    • Psychosocial: Erik's initiative vs guilt
    • Cognitive: piaget's preoperational stage
    • Behavioral: motor and language skills
    • Physical exams: routine, must have head to toe exam and immunizations complete prior to starting school
  28. G&d school-age child (6-12yrs)
    • Need to perfom useful work
    • Last stage where girls and boys are close in size
    • Body organs and immune system matures. Can handle medication better.
    • Nutritional needs increase
    • Enters concrete operational thought 7yrs
    • Understand everyone has a role in games like rules
    • Ability to cooperate with other to play is called cooperative play
  29. Developmental stages school age child
    • Physical: growth spurts
    • Psychosocial: erikson's industry vs inferiority
    • Cognitive: piaget's concrete operations
  30. Developmental stages preadolescence(12-13yrs)
    • Physical: varies markedly
    • Psychosocial: begins to pull away from family and develop close friendships and groups
    • Challenges authority
    • Rejects standards
  31. G&d adolescent (12-18yrs)
    • signals end of childhood and entrance to adulthood
    • Numerous physical changes called puberty
    • Growth spurt--girls around 10y/o, boys 13y/o
    • Menstruation in girls signals achievement of puberty
    • Many physical and hormonal changes
    • Ability to think and act independently causes rebellion for many
    • Any new activities: driving
  32. Developmental stages adolescence (13-19yrs)
    • Physical: puberty
    • Psychosocial: erikson's ego identity vs identity confusion
    • Cognitive: piaget's formal operations
    • Behavioral: boyfriend/girlfriend relationships
    • Physical exams: selfcare focused
  33. Functions of play
    • Sensorimotor
    • Intellectual
    • Creativity
    • Self-awareness
    • Therapeutic value
    • Moral value