Chem ch 19

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clydethedog
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15140
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Chem ch 19
Updated:
2010-05-04 19:55:44
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Chemistry Chang
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chang 19
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  1. electrochemistry
    the branch of chemistry that deals with the interconversion between electrical energy and chemical energy
  2. Redox reactions
    reactions involving the trasfer of electrons from one substance to another
  3. Steps for balancing redox reactions
    • 1. Write the unbalanced ionic equation
    • 2. Separate into 2 half-reactions
    • 3. Balance atoms other than H & O
    • 4. Add H2O to balance O atoms
    • 5. Add H+ to balance H (if basic add OH to balance H+)
    • 6. Add e- to 1 side of each 1/2 rxn to balance changes
    • 7. Equalize the # of e- in the 2 1/2 rxns by multiplying by proper coefficients
    • 8. Add rxns together, e- must cancel
    • 9. Verify atoms and sum of charges are balanced
  4. galvanic cell
    aka voltaic cell - the experimental apparatus for generating electricity through the use of spontaneous redox reaction
  5. salt bridge
    contains an inert electrolytic solution that allows the charges to stay balanced
  6. anode
    • where oxidation takes place, usually listed 1st
    • electrons flow from here to cathode
  7. cathode
    • where reduction takes place, usually listed 2st
    • electrons flow from anode to here
  8. E
    • Electromotive force
    • Cell voltage
    • cell potential
    • emf
  9. SHE
    Hydrogen Electrode Operating under Standard-State Conditions
  10. standard reduction potential E*
    the voltage associated with a reduction reaction at an electrode when all solutes are 1 M and all gases are at 1 atm
  11. standard oxidation potential
    the voltage associated with an oxidation reaction at an electrode when all solutes are 1 M and all gases are at 1 atm (- of the standard reduction potential)
  12. standard cell potential E*cell
    • standard emf - the sum of the standard oxidation potential and standard reduction potential
    • E*cell = E*ox + E* red
    • MAKE SURE of order (solid on right is reduction)
  13. equation to relate free-energy change to the emf of a cell
    ^ G = -n F Ecell
  14. equation relating standard emf of the cell to the equilibrium constant
    E*cell = 0.0257V In K
  15. Values of ^G*, K, E*cell for a spontaneous reactions
    • ^G* < 0 (-)
    • K > 1 (big)
    • E*cell > 0 (+)
  16. Values of ^G*, K,
    E*cell for a non-spontaneous reactions
    • ^G* > 0 (+)
    • K < 1 (small)
    • E*cell< 0 (-)
  17. Values of ^G*, K,
    E*cell for a reaction at equilibrium
    • ^G* = 0
    • K = 1
    • E*cell = 0
  18. Nernst equation
    relates emf to concentrations and non-standard conditions
    E = E* - RT/ nF In Q
  19. dry cell battery
    Zinc, Manganese dioxide, ammonium chloride
  20. Mercury battery
    expensive - used in medicine and electronic industries
  21. Lead Storage battery
    automobiles, 6 cells
  22. fuel cell
    a galvanic cell that requires a continuous supply of reactants to keep functioning
  23. corrosion
    the deterioration of metals by an electrochemical process
  24. electrolysis
    the process in which electrical energy is used to cause a nonspontaneous chemical reaction to occur
  25. Amperes
    (A) 1C = 1A x 1sec
  26. faraday
    • the charge on a mole of electrons, it is synonymous with 1 mole of e-
    • Coulombs x Volts = Joules

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