Card Set Information
bi 102 final
Which of the following processes forms a zygote?
Through which of the following structures in the male reproductive tract do sperm pass last?
Which of the following glands is not part of the male reproductive system?
Through which of the following female reproductive structures would an egg (or embryo or fetus) pass last?
Fertilization usually occurs in the ________.
The human embryonic stage that implants into the uterus is called the ________.
A developing human is considered a fetus after the ________ week.
The umbilical cord contains ________.
blood vessels and blood of the fetus only.
The costs of sexual reproduction include _____.
attracting and keeping a mate, producing gametes, nourishing developing young
What organ system is part of the male reproductive system but not part of the female reproductive system?
Which hormone is involved in sperm production?
Testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
The endometrium _____.
lines the uterus, is the site of blastocyst implantation, gives rise to maternal portion of the placenta
Which embryonic membrane anchors the blastocyst and becomes part of the placenta?
Blood vessels extend from the fetus, through the _____, and into _____.
umbilical cord, chorionic villi
The optimal birthing time for a "full term" fetus is _____ weeks after fertilization.
Postnatal growth is most rapid between the ages of _____.
13 to 19 years
Which of the following choices is not a plant tissue system?
reproductive tissue system
Which of the following tissues produces a waxy cuticle?
Which of the following tissues transports water from the roots to the leaves?
A plant classified as a eudicot has two ________.
Which of the following statements describes the arrangement of vascular bundles in a monocot stem?
They are scattered throughout the ground tissue.
A flat leaf blade with a base that forms a sheath around the stem would typically be found in ________.
A waxy cuticle is secreted by the leaf ________.
A mass of undifferentiated cells capable of cell division in the tip of a root or shoot is called a(n)____.
A main primary root and its lateral branching is a(n) ________ system.
In most areas of the United States, the dark portion of a tree ring forms during the ________.
Water movement up a plant is driven mainly by ________.
water evaporating from leaves.
A stoma in a plant leaf is surrounded by ________.
two guard cells
The mechanism by which sugar moves in a plant is explained by the ________ theory.
The complex tissue phloem functions in _____.
As a young plant grows taller, most of the cells' divisions are occurring in _____.
Stomata serve what function in the leaf?
The root systems of eudicots differ from those of dicots in that_____.
eudicots have a deep taproot while monocots have a shallower, fibrous root system
Growth rings in trees are caused by _____.
large-diameter xylem cells produced during wet springs alternating with smaller-diameter ones
made during dry summers
Tropical woods have no growth rings because _____.
seasonal changes in the tropics are much less pronounced
Mycorrhizae absorb some sugars and nitrogen-rich compounds from plant root cells but they aid the plants by _____.
aiding in the absorption of mineral ions
The evaporation of water molecules from leaves and stems of plants is called _____.
_____ conducts mainly water and ions and ____ conducts mainly sugars.
The nutrition of some plants depends on a root-fungus association known as a
Water evaporation from plants is called ____.
Which of the following structures is not part of a carpel?
Which of the following descriptions correctly defines pollination?
arrival of a pollen grain on a stigma
Which of the following structures is not part of a seed?
Which of the following pollinators is attracted to flowers with pigments that reflect ultraviolet light?
The portion of the female reproductive organs of the flower, which traps pollen grains so that they can germinate is called the _____.
Flowers with vivid red coloration and no fragrance are likely to be pollinated by _____.
3. In flowering plants, the term "double fertilization" means that _____.
one sperm fertilizes the egg and another fertilizes the double-nucleated cell in the embryo sac
Aggregate fruits form from _____.
separate ovaries of a single flower
The embryo, its seed coat, and its food reserves are all packaged together into the _____.
Aspen trees mainly reproduce _____ growing larger through _____.
Meristematic cells within a plant can differentiate into various cell types because they _____.
use different subsets of the same set of genes
The _____ ,which bears flowers, roots, stems and leaves, dominates the life cycle of flowering plants.
Seeds are mature ____; fruits are mature _______.
ovules; ovaries, mostly
After meiosis within pollen sacs, haploid _____ form.
Cotyledons develop as part of _____ .
The _____ of a flower contains one or more ovaries in which eggs develop, fertilization occurs and seeds mature.
Parthenogenesis is known as ___.
Eggs that develop without fertilization
What determines sex of vertebrates?
What determines sex of egg-laying reptiles?
What determines sex of wasps, ants and bees?
Unfertilized egg = male and fertilized egg = female
What determines sex of bony fishes?
Their sex can change during their lifetime
Trace the path of sperm in males.
Testes � epididymis � vas deferens � ejaculatory duct � urethra
What do the seminal vesicles do?
They secrete fructose (energy for sperm) & prostaglandins � smooth muscle contractions
What does the prostate do?
It secretions increase sperm motility
What do the bulbourethral glands do?
They secrete a clear mucus to aid sperm travel and neutralizes urine in urethra
Trace the path of the egg in a female.
Ovary � oviduct � uterus
What is the pregnancy hormone called?
What are the extra embryonic membranes critical to development?
The amnion and the chorion and the placenta
What does the amnion do?
It encloses and protects embryo in fluid
What are some characteristics of the kingdom plantae?
Multi-celled, photoautotrophs, closely related to green algae
What are angiosperms?
They are the most diverse group with in the plant kingdom, flowering plants, broken into two categories � Eudicots and monocots
What are the three most important plants to humanity?
Rice, wheat and corn
What are the two basic plant systems?
Root and shoot
What are some characteristics of root plant system?
Anchor root, penetrate soil and absorb water + dissolved minerals, store food
What are some characteristics of shoot plant systems?
Stems & leaves, produce food by photosynthesis, carry out reproduction functions
What do modified stems do?
Store food and water, vegetative reproductive, protect. EX: white potato
What do modified leaves do?
Store food and water, climb, attract pollinators, trap insects, collect soil, protect ex: onion leaves and aloe vera
What is Xylem?
It conducts water & dissolves minerals
What is phloem?
It transports sugars
What is transpiration?
It requires no energy, H2O evaporates from leaves (out stomata), low pressure pulls h20 thru xylem, hydrogen bonds hold h2o molecules together
What is pressure flow?
Requires energy, load sucrose into phloem, h2o passively enters by osmosis, pressure created moves fluid throughout plant
What are monocots?
Grasses, orchids, palms, lilies, cereal grains, parallel veins in leaves, fibrous root system
What are eudicots?
Trees, shrubs, roses, oaks, maples, net like veins in leaves, fruit and veggies, has petiole, taproot system
What are the three F�s of flowering plants?
Flowers, fruits, double fertilization
What are the four parts of an ideal flower?
Sepals, petals, stamen, carpel
What are seeds?
What are fruits?
Mature ovary and/or nearby tissues
What are four ways of seed dispersal?
Wind, water, animal hitch hiker, animal edible
What are simple fruits?
Derived from single ovary, example: peas
What are aggregate fruits?
Numerous ovaries within 1 flower example: raspberry
What are multiple fruits?
Many flowers each with own carpel example: pineapple
What are accessory fruits?
Tissue not derived from ovary example apple
What can trigger germination?
Rain, fire, cold, light, partial digestion