RM2

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nikki.deasy
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151415
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RM2
Updated:
2012-05-01 12:15:01
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research methods
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Research methods flash cards test 2
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  1. Validity
    Does it measure what it’s supposed to measure?
  2. Reliability
    Consistency and reproducibility
  3. Nominal
    Measurement involves observations in qualitatively different categories
  4. Ordinal
    Data according to size
  5. Interval
    Measurement data same distance apart
  6. Quota sampling
    Nonrandom sampling technique when subgroups from each group are chosen
  7. Stratified sampling
    Process of sampling in which groups of interest are identified and participants selected at random from the groups
  8. Convenience sampling
    Picking population that’s easy or available
  9. Subject variable
    Independent variable resembling true IV but created on basis of pre-existing characteristics of participant
  10. Manipulated variable
    True IV changed by the experimenter
  11. Measured variable
    Variable used to create groups to be measured, but participants are assigned based on their characteristics rather than researchers’ system
  12. Quasi-experiment
    Research project resembling experiment that compares groups but no random or systematic assignment (assignment based on participant characteristics)
  13. Ex post facto study
    Resembles experiment but uses existing grouped data that didn’t involve random assignment
  14. Qualitative variable
    Variable whose different values are based on qualitative rather than numeric differences
  15. Quantitative variable
    Variable whose differences are based on numerical differences like size or duration
  16. Repeated Measures design
    Design in which a single participant is observed & measured on more than one level of independent variable rather than individuals on each level of individual variable
  17. ANOVA (Analysis of variance)
    Family of statistical tests that compares group means to assess whether differences across means are reliable
  18. Planned comparison
    When you know in advance which groups you’re going to compare
  19. Post hoc comparison
    When you compare groups after looking at results
  20. Factorial design
    Research design when investigator manipulates more than one variable, each level crossed with each level of all other IVs
  21. Main effect
    In factorial design, differences among groups for single IV that are significant, temporarily ignoring all other IVs
  22. Interaction effect
    In a factorial design, differences across groups of a single IV that are predictable only by knowing the level of another IV
  23. Higher order interaction
    Interaction in factorial design that involves joint effect of more than 2 IVs
  24. Within-subjects design
    Repeated measures – collecting data from same people more than once
  25. Between groups design
    Test participants in different groups to see if there are differences between groups
  26. Sequence effects
    The result of multiple or repeated measurements of individuals in different experiment conditions such that they behave differently on later measurements as a result of having undergone the earlier measurements
  27. Order effects
    The result of multiple or repeated measurements of individuals in different experimental conditions such that a particular behavior changed depending on which condition it follows
  28. Transfer
    A change in behavior in a repeated measures design that results from learning that takes place in an earlier condition
  29. Symmetric transfer
    A change in behavior in a repeated measures design that results from learning in an earlier condition, with the same degree of change in later behaviors, regardless of the order of conditions
  30. Asymmetric transfer
    A change in behavior in a repeated measures design that results from learning in an earlier condition, with differences in the amount of transfer in a later condition depending on which conditions occur first
  31. Counterbalancing
    In a repeated measures design, the changing of the order of conditions to avoid contamination of data
  32. Complete counterbalancing
    In a repeated measures design, the use of all possible orders of experimental conditions to avoid contamination of data because of systematic sequence
  33. Partial counterbalancing
    In a repeated measures design the use of a subset of all possible orders of experimental conditions to avoid contamination of data because of systematic sequence, order, or transfer effects
  34. Statistical regression
    Participants categorized or selected for research participation on basis of initial observation that involves significant measurement error that is not likely to repeat itself on later measurements, giving the false impression that change is due to a treatment when it is really due to the difference in measurement error.
  35. Attrition threat
    Participants dropping out
  36. Maturation threat
    Short or long term changes in participant
  37. Selection threat
    Groups seem to differ – could be due to initial differences rather than the IV
  38. Testing threat
    Participants’ previous tests changes their behavior
  39. Nonequivalent control group
    A quasi-experimental research design in which 2 groups differ on pre-existing dimension measured on a pre-test, exposed to treatment, and measured on a posttest
  40. Snowball sampling
    An individual from a hidden population is likely to know others in the group
  41. Observational research
    Investigators are trained to record human or nonhuman behavior exactly as it occurs, avoiding interpretation
  42. Cohort effects
    Differences across age groups having to do with characteristics of the era in which the person grew up rather than age specifically
  43. Cohort study
    Longitudinal research in which investigator samples randomly from population because of specific characteristic, often age
  44. Panel study
    Longitudinal research in which investigator studies the same individuals over time
  45. Withdrawal design
    Investigator observes baseline, applies treatment, watches change, and then removes or withdraws treatment and observes

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