# RM2

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The flashcards below were created by user nikki.deasy on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

1. Validity
Does it measure what it’s supposed to measure?
2. Reliability
Consistency and reproducibility
3. Nominal
Measurement involves observations in qualitatively different categories
4. Ordinal
Data according to size
5. Interval
Measurement data same distance apart
6. Quota sampling
Nonrandom sampling technique when subgroups from each group are chosen
7. Stratified sampling
Process of sampling in which groups of interest are identified and participants selected at random from the groups
8. Convenience sampling
Picking population that’s easy or available
9. Subject variable
Independent variable resembling true IV but created on basis of pre-existing characteristics of participant
10. Manipulated variable
True IV changed by the experimenter
11. Measured variable
Variable used to create groups to be measured, but participants are assigned based on their characteristics rather than researchers’ system
12. Quasi-experiment
Research project resembling experiment that compares groups but no random or systematic assignment (assignment based on participant characteristics)
13. Ex post facto study
Resembles experiment but uses existing grouped data that didn’t involve random assignment
14. Qualitative variable
Variable whose different values are based on qualitative rather than numeric differences
15. Quantitative variable
Variable whose differences are based on numerical differences like size or duration
16. Repeated Measures design
Design in which a single participant is observed & measured on more than one level of independent variable rather than individuals on each level of individual variable
17. ANOVA (Analysis of variance)
Family of statistical tests that compares group means to assess whether differences across means are reliable
18. Planned comparison
When you know in advance which groups you’re going to compare
19. Post hoc comparison
When you compare groups after looking at results
20. Factorial design
Research design when investigator manipulates more than one variable, each level crossed with each level of all other IVs
21. Main effect
In factorial design, differences among groups for single IV that are significant, temporarily ignoring all other IVs
22. Interaction effect
In a factorial design, differences across groups of a single IV that are predictable only by knowing the level of another IV
23. Higher order interaction
Interaction in factorial design that involves joint effect of more than 2 IVs
24. Within-subjects design
Repeated measures – collecting data from same people more than once
25. Between groups design
Test participants in different groups to see if there are differences between groups
26. Sequence effects
The result of multiple or repeated measurements of individuals in different experiment conditions such that they behave differently on later measurements as a result of having undergone the earlier measurements
27. Order effects
The result of multiple or repeated measurements of individuals in different experimental conditions such that a particular behavior changed depending on which condition it follows
28. Transfer
A change in behavior in a repeated measures design that results from learning that takes place in an earlier condition
29. Symmetric transfer
A change in behavior in a repeated measures design that results from learning in an earlier condition, with the same degree of change in later behaviors, regardless of the order of conditions
30. Asymmetric transfer
A change in behavior in a repeated measures design that results from learning in an earlier condition, with differences in the amount of transfer in a later condition depending on which conditions occur first
31. Counterbalancing
In a repeated measures design, the changing of the order of conditions to avoid contamination of data
32. Complete counterbalancing
In a repeated measures design, the use of all possible orders of experimental conditions to avoid contamination of data because of systematic sequence
33. Partial counterbalancing
In a repeated measures design the use of a subset of all possible orders of experimental conditions to avoid contamination of data because of systematic sequence, order, or transfer effects
34. Statistical regression
Participants categorized or selected for research participation on basis of initial observation that involves significant measurement error that is not likely to repeat itself on later measurements, giving the false impression that change is due to a treatment when it is really due to the difference in measurement error.
35. Attrition threat
Participants dropping out
36. Maturation threat
Short or long term changes in participant
37. Selection threat
Groups seem to differ – could be due to initial differences rather than the IV
38. Testing threat
Participants’ previous tests changes their behavior
39. Nonequivalent control group
A quasi-experimental research design in which 2 groups differ on pre-existing dimension measured on a pre-test, exposed to treatment, and measured on a posttest
40. Snowball sampling
An individual from a hidden population is likely to know others in the group
41. Observational research
Investigators are trained to record human or nonhuman behavior exactly as it occurs, avoiding interpretation
42. Cohort effects
Differences across age groups having to do with characteristics of the era in which the person grew up rather than age specifically
43. Cohort study
Longitudinal research in which investigator samples randomly from population because of specific characteristic, often age
44. Panel study
Longitudinal research in which investigator studies the same individuals over time
45. Withdrawal design
Investigator observes baseline, applies treatment, watches change, and then removes or withdraws treatment and observes

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 Author: nikki.deasy ID: 151415 Filename: RM2 Updated: 2012-05-01 16:15:01 Tags: research methods Folders: Description: Research methods flash cards test 2 Show Answers:

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