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A field that exists between any two objects with mass.
An invisible influence that can exert a force on a mass or charge.
Universal Law of Gravitation (force due to gravity)
F = mg
Formula for gravity, strength of gravitational field, acceleration due to gravity
Gravitational Potential Energy
PE = mgh
- Friction opposes sliding not motion.
- If there is sliding, it's kinetic friction; if there's no sliding, it's static friction.
- Static µ is always greater than kinetic µ.
- Surface area does not increase friction when the mass is the same.
Force due to friction formula
Force down an inclined plane formula
F = mgsin
Normal force on an inclined plane formula
Velocity at the base of an inclined plane
Vf = √(2gh)
F = k∆x
- x - displacement
- k - spring constant
Elastic Potential Energy formula
Simple Harmonic Motion formulas
T = 2π√(m/k)
(mass on a spring)
T = 2π√(L/g)
- T - period (time/wave)
- m - mass
- k - spring constant
- L - length of pendulum
- g - gravity
- Terminal velocity
- Constant velocity
- Objects at rest
- Balanced fulcrums or boards on strings
- Objects floating in liquid
Solving for systems in and not in equilibrium
Equilibrium - list all the forces and put them equal to one another.
Not Equilibrium - list all the forces and add "ma" to the loosing side.
Centripetal vs. Centrifugal
If a string is pulling a ball into a circular motion, the string's force on the ball is centripetal and the ball's force on the string is centrifugal.
Centrifugal does not exist.
- An object is in rotational equilibrium if:
- 1. It is NOT rotataing
- 2. It is rotating with a constant angular velocity/frequency
momentum is inertia increased by velocity and is always
conserved (remains constant) in an isolated system.
- Impulse = ∆
- Impulse = m∆v
- Impulse = Favgt
- If there is no change in velocity, there can be no impulse.
- The greater the change in velocity the greater the change in impulse.
- (KE1 + KE2)before + (KE1 + KE2)after
- In elastic collisions momentum and energy are both conserved.
m1v1 + m2v2 = m1v1 + m2v2
In inelastic collisions momentum is conserved but energy is not. For perfectly inelastic collisions the equations becomes:
m1v1 + m2v2 = (m1 + m2)v3
Modulus of elasticity (ME)
- Young's modulus - simultaneous pushing or pulling, perfectly lined up with one another.
- Shear modulus - simultaneous pushing or pulling not perfectly lined up.
- Bulk modulus - simultaneous compression from all sides.
Thermal expansion formula
- T - temperature
- L - length in inches
- - coefficient of thermal expansion
The energy of internal vibrations of molecules or atoms within a system.
Energy dissipated as heat. On the MCAT this usually means heat dissipated from a collision.
Heat energy and internal energy are almost synonymous.
The energy contained within chemical bonds, or the energy stored/released due to the separation and/or flow of electrons.
ME = KE + PE
- W = ∆Energy
- W = Fdcos
Units - Joules (
) or (