Micro test 1

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Micro test 1
2012-05-01 22:45:14

Micro Test 1
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  1. Types of Cellular Microbes
    • bacteria
    • archaea
    • algae
    • protozoa
    • fungi
  2. Types of Acellular Microbes
    • viruses
    • viroids
    • prions
  3. Cellular Microbes can be divided into _____ and _____
    • procaryotic (bacteria and archaea)
    • eucaryotic (algae, protoza and fungi)
  4. Disease causing microbes?
  5. Pathogens that do not cause disease?
  6. Microbes that live on our bodies?
    Indigenous Microflora
  7. Some members of our indegenous flora are _____ pathogens
  8. Opportunistic pathogens are
    microbes that can cause diease, but usually do not.
  9. Pathogens cause two categories of disease
    • Infections disease
    • Microbial intoxications (toxins from bacteria making you sick)
  10. Photosynthetic algae and bacteria produce much of the ____ in our atmosphere
  11. Microorganisms are involved in the ____ of dead organisms and waste products.
  12. What are Saprophytes
    Organisms that live on dead/decaying organic matter
  13. What is Bioremediation
    The use of microbes to clean up toxic wastes
  14. Many microbes play essential roles in various elemental cycles. What are examples of elemental cycles
    • Carbon
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Sulfur
    • Phosphorus
  15. algae and bacteria serve as ____ more tiny animals
  16. Microbes are used in what industries
    • Food
    • Beverage
    • Chemical
    • antibiotic
    • genetic engineering
  17. Anton Van Leewenhoek
    • Father of microbiology
    • Not a trained scientist
    • created 1st microscope (300-500x)
    • Observed animicules (bacteria and protozoa)
  18. Louis Pasteur
    • Debunked spontaneous generation with swan neck flask experiment
    • Fermentation
    • Developed pastuerization process
    • Discovered life forms could exist without oxygen (anaerobes)
    • Developed rabies and anthrax vaccines
  19. Robet Koch
    • Germ theory
    • Discovered anthrax produced spores
    • Methods to cultivate bacteria-kochs postulates
    • Developed staining bacteria
    • Cholera
  20. Joseph Lister
    Aseptic surgery
  21. Alexander Felemming
    Discovered Penecillin
  22. Microbiologists
    Studies Microbes
  23. Medical micro
    Study of pathogens, the disease they cause and the bodys defenses
  24. Other career fields in micro
    epidemiology, immunology, microbiology
  25. What is ecology
    The systematic study of the relationships that exist between organisms and their env.
  26. What is microbial ecology
    the study of the relationship between microbes and the world around them
  27. Indigenous microflora
    naturally present in our bodies
  28. What is symbiosis
    • 2 dissimilar organisms liveing together in close association
    • Symbionts!
  29. Neutralism
    Neither symbiont is affected
  30. Commensalism
    Beneficial to one symbiont but has no affect on other
  31. Mutualism
    Beneficial to both
  32. Parasitism
    Beneficial to one but harmful to the other
  33. Blood, lymph, spinal fluid, and internal tissues and organs are free of ______
    • Microorganisms
    • Sterile
  34. Microflora of the skin
    • Bacteria or fungi
    • 30 kinds
    • Most common=Staphylococcus
  35. Number and variety of microorganisms in Microflora depend on:
    • Amount of moisture
    • PH
    • Temp
    • Salinity
    • Presence of chem waste
  36. Define Carriers
    Have virulent pathogens in nose or throat but do not have the disease caused by pathogen
  37. Lower respiratory tract is usually free of ____
  38. What is microbial antagonism?
    • Microbes VS Microbes
    • Some microbes are beneficial bc they prevent others from becoming established
  39. Define Opportunistic Pathogens
    They "hang around" waiting for opportunity to make you sick!
  40. The balance of microflora can be upset by:
    • Antibiotics
    • Chemo
    • Changes in PH
  41. Bacteria and yeasts used to stabilize the microbial balance are called ______
    Biotherapeutic agents/ Probiotics
  42. Biofilms
    • Compex communities
    • Variety of of diff species
    • Secrete a "gooey" polysaccharide
    • EX: dental plaque
  43. Biofilms grow in tiny clusters called ____
  44. Why are biofilms medically significant?
    • They form on urinary caths and medical equip.
    • Can cause disease
    • ex: endocarditis
  45. Microbes commonly associated with biofilms
    • Yeast
    • Candida albicans
    • Bacteria such as staph
  46. Biofilms are very _____ to antibiotics and disinfectant
  47. Why are biofilms resistant?
    The bacteria produce diff types of proteins that may not be produced by bacteria in pure culture
  48. What is a synergistic infection?
    • 2 or more organisms team up to produce a disease neither could cause alone
    • also called a polymicrobial infection
  49. The cell
    Fundamental unit of any living organism
  50. The cell contains:
    • Cytoplasm
    • Cell membrane
    • Dna
    • Ribosomes
  51. Two basic cell types
    • Eucaryotic
    • Procaryotic
  52. Charcteristics of life
    • Growth
    • Reproduction
    • Metabolism
    • Cell support
    • Movement
    • Transmort of nutriens and waster
  53. Describe Eucayotic cells
    • Double membrane bound nucleus with DNA
    • Contain membrane bound organelles
    • EX: animals, plants, protozoan, algae, fungi
  54. Describe Procaryotic cells
    • NO NUCLEUS or other membrane bound organelles
    • EX: Bacteria
  55. Bacteria are divided into 3 major Pheontype categories
    • Gram-Neg- Have cell wall
    • Gram-Pos-Have a cell wall
    • Those that lack a cell wall
  56. Procaryotic Cells
    • 10x smaller than eucaryotic
    • Simple
    • Reproduce by binary fission
  57. Cell membarane of Procayrotic
    • Phospholipid bilayer-Selectively Permeable
    • Many enzymes are attatched
    • Metabolic reactions take place
  58. Chromosome of prokrayotic
    Single long supercoiled CIRCULAR DNA (control center)
  59. What are plasmids in PRO
    Small circular molecules of DNA that are not part of chromosome-Special functions
  60. Cytoplasma of PRO
    • Semi liquid-consists of water, enzymes, waste, nutrients, proteins, carbs and lipids
    • Metabolic function
  61. Ribosomes
    Protein synthesis
  62. Bacterial cell wall
    • Defines shape
    • Chem complex-Coccus, Bascillus, Spirillium
    • Peptidoglycan
  63. Gram pos bacteria have a ____ layer pf peptidoglycan
  64. Gram neg bacteria have _____layer that allows for ____
    • Thinner
    • Differentiation
  65. Pleomorphic
    No cell wall
  66. Action of Penicillin
    Can cause peptidoglycan not to form in reproducing cells-causes cells to burst
  67. Action of lysozyme
    • Attacks living cells-breaks down peptidoglycan-causes cell to burst
    • More drastic in gram POSITIVE
  68. 3 Basic categories of bacteria based on shape
    • Coccia- Round
    • Bacilli-Rod shaped
    • Spirillium-Curved and spiral shaped
  69. Glycocalyx
    Slimy gelatinous material produced by cell membrane and extreted outside cell wall
  70. 2 types of glycocalx
    • Slime layer-Loosely connected
    • Capsule-Organized and firmly connected
  71. _____ produce slime layer
  72. Capsules serves as an
    Antiphagocytic function
  73. Motile bacteria possess ____
  74. Flagella-
    Whiplike appendages made of protein called flagellin
  75. Pili
    • Composed of polymerized protein molecules called pilin
    • Thinner-Not associated with motility
  76. Fimbriae
    • Hair like structures
    • usually gram negative
    • Allow bacteria to anchor
  77. Spores/Endospores
    • Time capsule
    • Visualized using spore stain
  78. Sporulation
    • spore formation
    • NOT reproduction
  79. Bacterial Growth
    • Increase in # of bacteria
    • Asexual process
    • Continues as long as there is a supply of nutrients water and space
    • One divides into 2
  80. Generation Time
    • The time it takes for binary fission to occur
    • Increase population by 2
    • 1=2, 2-4, 4=8
  81. Colony morphology includes
    • Size
    • Shape
    • Elevation
    • Appearance

    Clue to id bacteria
  82. Environmental factors that inflence growth
    • Nutrients
    • Moisture
    • Temp
    • O2 requirements
    • PH
    • Pressure
  83. Organisms obtain energy by
    Breaking chemical bonds. Nutrients are energy
  84. Dessication
    Drying process
  85. Three cardinal temps
    • Minimum
    • Optimum
    • Maximum
  86. Ideal temperature is determined by
  87. Thermophiles
    grow best at high temps
  88. Mesophiles
    Grow best at moderate temps
  89. Psychrophiles
    prefer cold temps
  90. Psychrotrophs
    Prefer fridge like temps
  91. Psychroduric
    Warm temps but can endure very cold
  92. Obgligate Aerobes
    Have to have o2
  93. Microaerophiles
    Love a little air
  94. Obligate anaerobes
    Killed by O2
  95. Aerotolerant anaerobes
    do not use o2 but can survive in its presence
  96. Acidophiles
    • love acid
    • PH of 2-5
  97. Alkaliphiles
    Love base PH less than 8.5
  98. Obligate acidophiles
    Grow at extreme acid PH- Lower than 6
  99. Bacteria do not like _____ solution
  100. Plasmolysis
    • Cell membrane and cytoplasm of cell shrink away from cell wall
    • occurs when bacteria are in hypertonic solution
  101. Plasmopytsis
    • Bacterial cell is placed in hypotonic solution
    • It may not burst
    • if it does burst cytoplasm escapes
  102. Halophile
    Love salt
  103. Haldoduric
    Capable of surviving in salt but do not prefer it
  104. Pathogenic strains of bacteria can be id by the
    enzymes they secrete
  105. Barometric pressure
    microbes that can survive in high atmospheric press they are called piezophiles
  106. Pathogens are able to cause disease bc they possess
    • capsules
    • pili
    • endotoxins
    • or they secrete exotoxins and exoenzymes
  107. Obligate intacellular pathogens
    they must live within a host cell/gram negative type
  108. Mycoplasm
    • smallest of cell microbes
    • Lack a cell wall
    • Pleomorphic-assume many shapes bc of no cell wall
  109. Primary cause of atypical pneumonia and genetourinary infections
    Pathogenic mycoplasms