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Account for the metabolic pathway, the 38 ATP/ glucose molecules generated in cell respiration.
- Glycogen produces 2 ATP
- Krebs Cycle produces 2 ATP
- Electron Transport & Chemiosmosis produces 34 ATP
Supply (2) major products of fermentation:
- Carbon Dioxide
- Ethanol Alcohol
This pathway is a modified, _______ pathway.
In general give three comments regarding metabolic pathways
- Make ATP
- Driven by enzymes
- Need ATP to get going
- Run on chain reaction
- They are anaerobic or aerobic
What are Photosystems?
They are inside the Thylokiod. They are clusters of light-absorbing pigments (chlorophyll) in the reaction center of the photosystem; the energy of sunlight is converted to chemical energy
What is the stroma?
- The fluid-filled space surrounding the grana is the stroma.
- This is where dark reactions take place
Where do light reactions take place?
In the Thylakoids (stacks of Thylakoids are called Grana)
Where do dark reactions take place?
Dark Reaction take place in the Stroma
After light exposure, what can escape from Chlorophyll?
What accepts it?
- High Energy Electrons
- What accepts it? Oxidized coenzymes
What is produced in the Photolysis of water during photosynthesis?
- H+ protons
- High energy electrons
What is produced during the light reactions of Photosynthesis?
ATP and reduced coenzymes
What is Co2 Fixations?
Part of photosynthesis, puts the carbon into glucose
Give the requirements and products of the Krebs cycle
- Requires Oxygen (so it is Aerobic & occurs in the Mitochondria)
- Requires the two molecules of pyruvic acid formed in glycolysis
- Produces/ Gives off Co2
- Produces ATP & Reduced co enzymes (NADH)
What is substrate level phosphorylation?
Makes ATP directly from ADP. It is the production of ATP using energy from other high energy compounds but without the use of the electron transport system in the mitochondria. (the production of ATP in an Anaerobic pathway)
What aerobic pathways carry out phosphorylation?
- Krebs cycle
- Electron Transport
Give the stages of interphase? What happens in each?
- G1 Cell Growth (replication of chromosomes begin and cell duplicates organelles)
- S - DNA is copies (replication of DNA & Chromosomes)3
- G2 - Cell Division (mitosis)
What are (3) applications of Mitosis in the human body?
1. Homologues Chromosomes contain _____, _____ & _________
When in Meiosis does paring of homologues chromosomes take place?
Generally, where in organisms does meiosis take place?
In the reproductive organs
Provide (4) comments regarding electron transport
- Occurs in the mitochondria & chloroplasts
- You need reduced coenzymes & high energy electrons
- Electrons are passed from one carrier until they are received by O2 (oxygen)
- In the end, metabolic water is produced