a strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate comanion and is characterized by afffection and a desire to maintain proximity.
The theory of close relationships developed by Bowlby and Ainsworth and grounded in ethological theory (with psychoanalytic theory and cognitive theory); it says that close emotional bonds such as parteny-child attachmentas are biologically based and contribute to species survival.
an insecure infant caregiver bond or other intimate relationship characterized by little separation anxiety and a tendency to avoid or ignore the attachment object upon reunion.
as distinguished from attachment, a more biologically-based process in which parent and infant form a connection through contact in the first hours after birth when both are highly alert.
According to neo-Freudian Harry Stack Sullivan, a close friendship in childhood that provides emotional support and teaches children how to participate in intimate relationships.
excessive discussion and analysis of personal problems with a close friend
In Sternberg's triangular theory of love, affectionate love characterized by high intimacy and commitment but low passion
a spouse, relative, or friend to whom a person feels emotionally close andwith whom that person can share thoughts and feelings
In Sternberg's triangular theory of love, love with high levels of all three components of love: passion, intimacy, and decision/commitment.
the pleasureable tactile sensations provided by a parent or a soft, terry cloth mother subsitute; believed to foster attachments in infant monkeys and possibly humans.
a disturbed attachment pattern observed in socially deprived children that involves indiscriminate friendliness toward both parents and strangers, lack of appropriate wariness of strangers, and difficulty regulating emotions well enough to participate in real, reciprocal social interactions.
an insecure infant- caregiver bond, common among abused children, that combines features of the resistant and avoidant attachment styles and isc haracterized by the infant's dazed response to reunion and confusion about whether to approach or avod the caregiver.
the processes involved in intiating, maintaining, adn altering emotional responses
a balance of contributions and gains in a social relationship that results in neither partner feeling over or under benefited
In Bowlby's attachment theory, the most mature phase of attachment in which parent and child accommodate to each other's needs and the child becomes more independent
mate selection or marriage on the basis of similarity in demograic and personal characteristics
an innate form of learning in which the young of certain species will follow and become attached to moving objects (usually their mothers) during a critical period early in life
internal working model
in attachment theory, cognitive representation of self and other that children construct from their interactions with caregivers and that shape their expectations about relationships
A hormone that plays importatnt roles in facilitating parent-infant attachment as well as reducing anxiety and encouraging affiliation in other social relationhips.
the tendency of older adults to pay more attention to, better remember, and put more priority on positive information that on negative information
symbolic play in which one actor, object or action sympbolizes or stands for another.
reactive attachment disorder
a psychiatric diagnosis affecting socially deprived and maltreated children that involves either emotionally withdrawn behavior or "disinhibited" attachment that involves indiscriminate interest in people with lack of approptriate wariness of strangers.
an insecure infant-caregiver bond or other intimate relationship characterized by srtrong separation anxiety and a tendency to show ambiavalent reactions to the atachment object upon reunion, seeking and yet resisting contact.
an infant-caregiver bond or intimate relationship in which the individual welcomes close contact, uses the attachment object as a source of comfort, and dislikes but can manage separations
A point of safety, represented by an infanct's attachment figure, that permits exploration of the environment
a "secondary emotion" such as embarrassment or pride that requires an awareness of self; unlikely to emerge until 18 months of age
a wary or fretful reaction that infants display when separated from their attachment objects
The changing cadre of significant perople who serve as souces of social support to the indiviual during the life span
Social pretend play
A form of play that involves both cooperation with playmates and pretend or symbolic activity
Infant's monitoring of companions' emotional reactions in ambiguous situations and use of this information to decide how they shuld feel and behave
Socioemotional selectivity theory
Carstensen's notion that our needs change as we grow older and that we actively choose to narrow our range of social partners to those who can best meet our emotional needs
methods for deteminging who is well like and popular and who is disliked or neglected in a group
A series of mildly stressful experiences involving the departure of the parent and exposure to a stranger to which infants are exposed to determine the quatlity of their attachments; developed by Ainsworth.
a wary or fretful reaction that infants often display when approached by an unfamiliar person
harmonious, dancelike interaction between infant and caregiver in which each adjusts behavior in response to that of the other
triangular theory of love
Robert Stenberg's model describing types of love in terms of three components: passion, intimacy, and decision/commitment
a dimesnsion of parenting capturing the extent to which parents are supportive, sensitive to their children's needs, and willing to provide affection and praise when their children meet their expectations
a restrictive style of parenting combining high demandingness-control and low acceptance-responsiveness in which adults impose many rules, expect strict pbedience, and often rely on power tactics rather than explanations to elicit compliance
a flexible style of parenting combining high demandingness-control and high acceptance-responsiveness in which adults lay down clear rules but also grant a fair amount of autonomy to their children adn explain the rational for their restrictions.
the capacity to make decisions independently, serve as one's own source of emotional strength, and otherwise manage life tasks without being overdependent on other people; an important developmental task of adolescence.
the psychological distress associated with providing care for someone with physical, cognitive, or both types of impairment
mistreating or harming a child physically, emotionally, or sexually, as distinguished from another form of child maltreatment, neglect of the child's basic needs.
child effects model
a model of family influence in which children are believed to influence their parents rather than vice versa
a broad term for inadequate care or harmful treatment of a child; encompasses both child abuse and child neglect
when two single adults live together as an unmarried couple
the extent and manner in which the two parents coordinate their parenting and function as a team in relation to their children.
a dimension of parenting reflecting the extent to which parents as opposed to children exert control over decisions and set and enforce rules (permissive-restrivtiveness)
extended family household
a family unit composed of parents and children living with other kin such as grandparents, aunts, and uncles, cousins, or a combination of these
family life cycle
the sequence of changes in family composition, roles, and relationships that occurs from the time people marry until they die.
Family systems theory
the conceptualization of the family as a whole consisting of inter related parts, each of which affects and is affected by every other part, and each of which contributes to the fucntioning of the whole.
the instance in which the relationship between two individuals in a family is modified by the behavior or attitudes of a third family member
intergenerational transmission of parenting
the passing down from generation to generation of parenting styles, abusive or otherwise.
the concept that the development of the individual is intertwined with the development of other family members
middle generation squeeze
the phenomenon in which middle-aged adults sometimes experience heavy responsibilities for both the younger and the older generations in the family.
a parenting style low in demandingness-control and low in acceptance-responsiveness; uninvolved parenting
a family unit consisting of husband-father, wife-mother, and at least one child. Compare with extended famliy household
parent effects model
a model of family influence in which parents (particularly mothers) are believed to influence their children rather than vice versa
a lax style of parenting combining low demandingness-control and high acceptance-responsiveness in whcih adults love their children but make few demands on them and rarely attempt to control their behavior
a new family that forms after the remarriage of a single parent, sometimes involving the blending of two families into a new one
a spirit of competition, jealousy, or resentment that may arise between two or more brothers or sisters
events at work affect home life, and events at home carry over into the work place
a model of family influence in which parent and child are believed to influence each other reciprocally
grieveing before death for waht is happening and for what lies ahead
making available to individuals who wish to commit suicide the means by which they may do so, such as when a physician provides a terminally ill patient who wants to die with enought medication to overdose
a state of loss taht provides the occasion for grief and mourning
maintenance of attachment to a loved one after the person's death through reminiscence, use of the person's possessions, constulation with the deceased, and the like.
grief work perspective
the view commonly held, but now challenged, that to cope adaptively with death bereaved people must confront their loss, experience painful emotions, work thought these emotions, and move toward a detachment from the deceased
damage theories of aging
theories that emphasize several haphazard processes that cause cells and organ systems to deteriorate
A defense mechanism in which anxiety-provoking thoughts are kept out of, or isolated from, conscious awareness
grief that is not fully recognized or appreciated by other people and therefore may not receive much sympathy and support, as in the loss of gay partner
dual process model of bereavement
a theory of coping with bereavement in which the bereaved oscillate between loss-oreinted coping in which they deal with their emotions, restoration-orientd coping in which they try to manage practical tasks and reorganize their lives, and periods of respite from coping
literally "good death"; specifically, hastening, either actively or passively, the death of someone suffereing from an incurable illness or injury
the emotional response to loss
the estimate that human cells can double only 50 times, plus or minus 10, and then will die
a program that supports dying persons and their families through a philosophy of caring rather than curing, either in a facility or at home
a document in which people state in advance that they do not wish to have extraordinary medical procedures applied if they are hopelessly ill
maximum life span
a ceiling on the number of years that any member of a species lives (120 for humans)
culturally presecribed ways of displaying reactions to a loss
care aimed not at curing but at meeting the physical, psychological, and spiritual needs of dying patients.
Parkes/Bowlby attachment model of bereavement
Model of grieving describing four predominant reactions to loss of an attachment figure: numbness, yearning, disorganizaiton and despair, and reorganization
a genetic disorder caused by a single dominant gene that makes victims age prematurely and die early
programmed theories of aging
theories that emphasize the systematic genetic control of aging processes
total brain death
an irreversible loss of functioning in the entire brain, both the higher centers of the cerebral cortex that are involved in thought and the lower centers of the brain that contol basic life processes such as breathing