Psych Final

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kskog09
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151460
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Psych Final
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2012-05-01 19:31:11
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Developmental Psychology
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  1. attachment
    a strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate comanion and is characterized by afffection and a desire to maintain proximity.
  2. Attachment theory
    The theory of close relationships developed by Bowlby and Ainsworth and grounded in ethological theory (with psychoanalytic theory and cognitive theory); it says that close emotional bonds such as parteny-child attachmentas are biologically based and contribute to species survival.
  3. Avoidant attachment
    an insecure infant caregiver bond or other intimate relationship characterized by little separation anxiety and a tendency to avoid or ignore the attachment object upon reunion.
  4. Bonding
    as distinguished from attachment, a more biologically-based process in which parent and infant form a connection through contact in the first hours after birth when both are highly alert.
  5. chumpship
    According to neo-Freudian Harry Stack Sullivan, a close friendship in childhood that provides emotional support and teaches children how to participate in intimate relationships.
  6. co-rumination
    excessive discussion and analysis of personal problems with a close friend
  7. Companionate love
    In Sternberg's triangular theory of love, affectionate love characterized by high intimacy and commitment but low passion
  8. Confidant
    a spouse, relative, or friend to whom a person feels emotionally close andwith whom that person can share thoughts and feelings
  9. consummate love
    In Sternberg's triangular theory of love, love with high levels of all three components of love: passion, intimacy, and decision/commitment.
  10. Contact comfort
    the pleasureable tactile sensations provided by a parent or a soft, terry cloth mother subsitute; believed to foster attachments in infant monkeys and possibly humans.
  11. disinhibited attachment
    a disturbed attachment pattern observed in socially deprived children that involves indiscriminate friendliness toward both parents and strangers, lack of appropriate wariness of strangers, and difficulty regulating emotions well enough to participate in real, reciprocal social interactions.
  12. disorganized-disoriented attachement
    an insecure infant- caregiver bond, common among abused children, that combines features of the resistant and avoidant attachment styles and isc haracterized by the infant's dazed response to reunion and confusion about whether to approach or avod the caregiver.
  13. emotion regulation
    the processes involved in intiating, maintaining, adn altering emotional responses
  14. equity
    a balance of contributions and gains in a social relationship that results in neither partner feeling over or under benefited
  15. goal-corrected partnership
    In Bowlby's attachment theory, the most mature phase of attachment in which parent and child accommodate to each other's needs and the child becomes more independent
  16. homogamy
    mate selection or marriage on the basis of similarity in demograic and personal characteristics
  17. imprinting
    an innate form of learning in which the young of certain species will follow and become attached to moving objects (usually their mothers) during a critical period early in life
  18. internal working model
    in attachment theory, cognitive representation of self and other that children construct from their interactions with caregivers and that shape their expectations about relationships
  19. oxytocin
    A hormone that plays importatnt roles in facilitating parent-infant attachment as well as reducing anxiety and encouraging affiliation in other social relationhips.
  20. positivity effecy
    the tendency of older adults to pay more attention to, better remember, and put more priority on positive information that on negative information
  21. pretend play
    symbolic play in which one actor, object or action sympbolizes or stands for another.
  22. reactive attachment disorder
    a psychiatric diagnosis affecting socially deprived and maltreated children that involves either emotionally withdrawn behavior or "disinhibited" attachment that involves indiscriminate interest in people with lack of approptriate wariness of strangers.
  23. resistant attachment
    an insecure infant-caregiver bond or other intimate relationship characterized by srtrong separation anxiety and a tendency to show ambiavalent reactions to the atachment object upon reunion, seeking and yet resisting contact.
  24. secure attachment
    an infant-caregiver bond or intimate relationship in which the individual welcomes close contact, uses the attachment object as a source of comfort, and dislikes but can manage separations
  25. secure base
    A point of safety, represented by an infanct's attachment figure, that permits exploration of the environment
  26. self-conscious emotion
    a "secondary emotion" such as embarrassment or pride that requires an awareness of self; unlikely to emerge until 18 months of age
  27. separation anxiety
    a wary or fretful reaction that infants display when separated from their attachment objects
  28. Social convoy
    The changing cadre of significant perople who serve as souces of social support to the indiviual during the life span
  29. Social pretend play
    A form of play that involves both cooperation with playmates and pretend or symbolic activity
  30. Social referencing
    Infant's monitoring of companions' emotional reactions in ambiguous situations and use of this information to decide how they shuld feel and behave
  31. Socioemotional selectivity theory
    Carstensen's notion that our needs change as we grow older and that we actively choose to narrow our range of social partners to those who can best meet our emotional needs
  32. Sociometric techniques
    methods for deteminging who is well like and popular and who is disliked or neglected in a group
  33. Strange situation
    A series of mildly stressful experiences involving the departure of the parent and exposure to a stranger to which infants are exposed to determine the quatlity of their attachments; developed by Ainsworth.
  34. Stranger anxiety
    a wary or fretful reaction that infants often display when approached by an unfamiliar person
  35. synchronized routine
    harmonious, dancelike interaction between infant and caregiver in which each adjusts behavior in response to that of the other
  36. triangular theory of love
    Robert Stenberg's model describing types of love in terms of three components: passion, intimacy, and decision/commitment
  37. Acceptance-responsiveness
    a dimesnsion of parenting capturing the extent to which parents are supportive, sensitive to their children's needs, and willing to provide affection and praise when their children meet their expectations
  38. Authoritarian parenting
    a restrictive style of parenting combining high demandingness-control and low acceptance-responsiveness in which adults impose many rules, expect strict pbedience, and often rely on power tactics rather than explanations to elicit compliance
  39. Authoritative parenting
    a flexible style of parenting combining high demandingness-control and high acceptance-responsiveness in which adults lay down clear rules but also grant a fair amount of autonomy to their children adn explain the rational for their restrictions.
  40. autonomy
    the capacity to make decisions independently, serve as one's own source of emotional strength, and otherwise manage life tasks without being overdependent on other people; an important developmental task of adolescence.
  41. caregiver burden
    the psychological distress associated with providing care for someone with physical, cognitive, or both types of impairment
  42. child abuse
    mistreating or harming a child physically, emotionally, or sexually, as distinguished from another form of child maltreatment, neglect of the child's basic needs.
  43. child effects model
    a model of family influence in which children are believed to influence their parents rather than vice versa
  44. child maltreatment
    a broad term for inadequate care or harmful treatment of a child; encompasses both child abuse and child neglect
  45. cohabitation
    when two single adults live together as an unmarried couple
  46. coparenting
    the extent and manner in which the two parents coordinate their parenting and function as a team in relation to their children.
  47. demandingness-control
    a dimension of parenting reflecting the extent to which parents as opposed to children exert control over decisions and set and enforce rules (permissive-restrivtiveness)
  48. extended family household
    a family unit composed of parents and children living with other kin such as grandparents, aunts, and uncles, cousins, or a combination of these
  49. family life cycle
    the sequence of changes in family composition, roles, and relationships that occurs from the time people marry until they die.
  50. Family systems theory
    the conceptualization of the family as a whole consisting of inter related parts, each of which affects and is affected by every other part, and each of which contributes to the fucntioning of the whole.
  51. indirect effect
    the instance in which the relationship between two individuals in a family is modified by the behavior or attitudes of a third family member
  52. intergenerational transmission of parenting
    the passing down from generation to generation of parenting styles, abusive or otherwise.
  53. linked lives
    the concept that the development of the individual is intertwined with the development of other family members
  54. middle generation squeeze
    the phenomenon in which middle-aged adults sometimes experience heavy responsibilities for both the younger and the older generations in the family.
  55. neglectful parenting
    a parenting style low in demandingness-control and low in acceptance-responsiveness; uninvolved parenting
  56. nuclear family
    a family unit consisting of husband-father, wife-mother, and at least one child. Compare with extended famliy household
  57. parent effects model
    a model of family influence in which parents (particularly mothers) are believed to influence their children rather than vice versa
  58. permissive parenting
    a lax style of parenting combining low demandingness-control and high acceptance-responsiveness in whcih adults love their children but make few demands on them and rarely attempt to control their behavior
  59. reconstituted family
    a new family that forms after the remarriage of a single parent, sometimes involving the blending of two families into a new one
  60. siblining reivalry
    a spirit of competition, jealousy, or resentment that may arise between two or more brothers or sisters
  61. spillover effects
    events at work affect home life, and events at home carry over into the work place
  62. transactional model
    a model of family influence in which parent and child are believed to influence each other reciprocally
  63. anticipatory grief
    grieveing before death for waht is happening and for what lies ahead
  64. assisted suicide
    making available to individuals who wish to commit suicide the means by which they may do so, such as when a physician provides a terminally ill patient who wants to die with enought medication to overdose
  65. bereavement
    a state of loss taht provides the occasion for grief and mourning
  66. continuing bond
    maintenance of attachment to a loved one after the person's death through reminiscence, use of the person's possessions, constulation with the deceased, and the like.
  67. grief work perspective
    the view commonly held, but now challenged, that to cope adaptively with death bereaved people must confront their loss, experience painful emotions, work thought these emotions, and move toward a detachment from the deceased
  68. damage theories of aging
    theories that emphasize several haphazard processes that cause cells and organ systems to deteriorate
  69. denial
    A defense mechanism in which anxiety-provoking thoughts are kept out of, or isolated from, conscious awareness
  70. disenfranchised grief
    grief that is not fully recognized or appreciated by other people and therefore may not receive much sympathy and support, as in the loss of gay partner
  71. dual process model of bereavement
    a theory of coping with bereavement in which the bereaved oscillate between loss-oreinted coping in which they deal with their emotions, restoration-orientd coping in which they try to manage practical tasks and reorganize their lives, and periods of respite from coping
  72. euthanasia
    literally "good death"; specifically, hastening, either actively or passively, the death of someone suffereing from an incurable illness or injury
  73. grief
    the emotional response to loss
  74. hayflick limit
    the estimate that human cells can double only 50 times, plus or minus 10, and then will die
  75. hospice
    a program that supports dying persons and their families through a philosophy of caring rather than curing, either in a facility or at home
  76. living will
    a document in which people state in advance that they do not wish to have extraordinary medical procedures applied if they are hopelessly ill
  77. maximum life span
    a ceiling on the number of years that any member of a species lives (120 for humans)
  78. mourning
    culturally presecribed ways of displaying reactions to a loss
  79. palliative care
    care aimed not at curing but at meeting the physical, psychological, and spiritual needs of dying patients.
  80. Parkes/Bowlby attachment model of bereavement
    Model of grieving describing four predominant reactions to loss of an attachment figure: numbness, yearning, disorganizaiton and despair, and reorganization
  81. progeria
    a genetic disorder caused by a single dominant gene that makes victims age prematurely and die early
  82. programmed theories of aging
    theories that emphasize the systematic genetic control of aging processes
  83. total brain death
    an irreversible loss of functioning in the entire brain, both the higher centers of the cerebral cortex that are involved in thought and the lower centers of the brain that contol basic life processes such as breathing

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