Clinical Practice Practical

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  1. Cervical radiography landmarks.
    • cranial: base of skull
    • caudal: spine of the scapula
  2. Thoracic radiograph landmarks.
    • cranial: spine of the scapula
    • caudal: halfway between xiphoid and the last rib
  3. Lumbar radiograph landmarks.
    • cranial: halfway between the xiphoid and the last rib
    • caudal: wings of the ilium
  4. How do you do a shoulder joint radiograph (mediolateral)?
    • lateral recumbency with affected limb down
    • measure laterally across the shoulder
    • reduce technique by 4 to 8 kVp
    • pull affected limb cranially and distally to open up the joint space
    • pull unaffected limb caudally to approximately 90 degrees from the down leg
    • extend head dorsally and
  5. How do you do a shoulder joint radiograph (caudocranial)?
    • ventrodorsal position
    • measure the thickest part of the chest
    • extend the limb of interest cranially to nearly parallel position with the cassette
    • slightly roll the sternum away from the limb being imaged to prevent superimposition
    • center the primary beam on the shoulder joint and collimate
    • do not rotate humerus to prevent an oblique view of the joint
  6. How do you do a elbow radiograph (craniocaudal)?
    • sternal recumbency
    • extend affected limb cranially
    • move patient's head up and slightly caudal to shift chest and neck away from joint.
    • point of olecranon against the cassette and completely extended
    • foam pad under point of elbow to prevent rotation
    • measure the thickest area
  7. How do you do an elbow radiograph (media lateral and flexed lateral)?
    • lateral recumbency with affected limb down
    • extend unaffected limb caudally
    • extend affected limb cranially
    • foam wedge under the metacarpal region maintain a true lateral view
    • flexed view is the same but pull the carpus forward toward the neck region
    • measure the distal humerus
  8. How do you do a pelvis radiograph (lateral)?
    • lateral recumbency with affected side down
    • wings of ilium superimposed
    • cranial landmark: wings of the ilium
    • caudal landmark: caudal border of the ischium
    • meausre across the pelvis at the thickest point
    • increase kVp by 6 - 8/perhaps more for very heavily muscled dogs
    • down leg slightly cranial/top leg slightly caudal
    • use wedge under top leg to prevent rotation
  9. What are the OFA requirements for pelvis?
    • ventrodorsal pelvic radiograph
    • perfect symmetry
    • wings of the ilia, sacroiliac joints and the obturator foramina should appear as mirror images
    • femurs must be parallel to each other with patellas centered on top of the patellar grooves
    • position of the patellas confirms the proper degree of rotation of the stifles and femurs so must be visible in the radiograph
  10. How do we prevent distortion with spinal radiographs?
    • support sagging structures
    • take regional pictures os areas are as perpendicular to the primary beam as possible
  11. What is the contrast for spinal radiographs?
  12. What are three reasons why we use dental charts?
    • for the personnel file
    • to make sure we are doing a thorough job and not missing anything
    • track disease
  13. Drug protocol for a cat for dentistry.
    • Glyco (anticholinergic)
    • Butorphanol (opioid agonist-antagonist analgesic)
    • Acepromazine (phenothiazine) - tranquilizer
  14. Drug protocol for a dog for dentistry.
    • Butorphanol (opioid agonist-antagoinst analgesic)
    • Acepromazine (phenothiazine) - tranquilizer
    • Glyco (anticholinergic)
    • Propofol (induce anesthesia)
  15. Drug protocol for a cat spay.
    • Acepromazine (phenothiazine) - tranquilizer
    • Buprenorphine (synthetic opiate - pain relief)
    • Meloxicam (NSAID)
    • iso (induction and maintenance)
  16. Drug protocol for a dog neuter.
    • Acepromazine (phenothiazine - tranquilizer)
    • Tramadol (pain relief)
    • Carprofen (NSAID) - post pain relief
    • Propofol (induction)
    • iso (maintenance)
  17. Drug protocol for cat radiographs.
    • Acepromazine (phenothiazine - tranquilizer)
    • Glyco (anticholinergic)
    • Meloxicam (NSAID)
    • Iso (induction and maintenance)
  18. Drug protocol for dog radiographs.
    • Acepromazine (phenothiazine - tranquilizer)
    • Butorphanol (opioid agonist - antagonist analgesic)
    • Propofol (induction)
    • iso (maintenance)
    • Meloxicam (NSAID) - post pain
  19. What is Butorphanol? When does it take effect? How long does it last? Adverse reactions?
    • opioid agoinst - antagonist analgesic
    • within 15 minutes
    • 3 - 4 hours
    • nausea, vomiting, decrease heart rate, stings
  20. What is propofol? What is the recovery like? Main adverse side effect?
    • intravenous sedative hypnotic agent to induce anesthesia
    • rapid - full standing within 20 minutes
    • stop breathing
  21. What is acepromazine? What is it used for? When should we not use it? When does it take full effect? How do we know its working?
    • phenothiazine
    • sedation, muscle relaxation, antiemetic, antihistamine
    • history of seizures, allergy testing
    • 15 minutes
    • prolapsed 3rd eyelid
  22. What is burprenorphine? When does it start working? What is it used for?
    • synthetic opiate
    • 15 - 30 minutes - lasts about 8 hours
    • sedation, pain relief
  23. What is Metacam? What do we use it for? When should we not use it?
    • NSAID
    • post op pain
    • should not give repeated doses (even though we do it anyway)
  24. What is Glycopyrrolate? What is it used for? When does it start working? What are the side effects?
    • anticholinergic
    • controls excessive salivation and pharyngeal secretions, raises heart rate
    • 15 minutes
    • eyes get dry (use ointment), mide mydriasis, tachycardia
  25. What is carprofen? What do we use it for? What are some side effects? When should we administer the medicine?
    • NSAID
    • post op pain
    • decrease appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, dark stool, increase water consumtion, increase urination, pale gums, yellow gums/skin/eyes, lethary, incoordination, seizures, behavioral changes
    • 2 hours before procedure
  26. What is Telazol? What is it used for? What reflexes are maintained? Describe the eyes. When does the onset occur?
    • injectable anesthetic
    • anesthesia
    • coughing and swallowing
    • remain open with pupils dialated
    • 5 - 12 minutes
  27. What is dexdomitor? What are some contraindications? what are some adverse reactions? When does it take effect? What should we give 10 minutes before? Why do humans need to be careful?
    • Alpha-2 agonist with sedative and analgesic properties
    • cardiovascular disease, respiratory disorder
    • dyspnea, decrease in body temp, lubricate eyes, vomiting
    • 5 - 15 minutes
    • glyco
    • can absorb through skin - wear gloves
  28. What is Tramadol?
    pain relief
  29. How do we do digital radiography?
    • turn digital on (green LED light)
    • switch on black box
    • turn on machine
    • adjust tube - 36 inches
    • touch smaller monitor to turn on
    • touch patient on main screen
    • touch study info
    • touch okay 3 times
    • select body part tab
    • select exposure mode (view)
    • measure patient
    • set technique on x-ray machine based on elkin technique chart
    • be sure green "ready" box is showing
    • press foot switch
    • press okay or retake then end study when done
    • touch okay on image destination screen
Card Set:
Clinical Practice Practical
2012-05-01 21:25:26
Clinical Practice

Clinical Practice
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