psych 301

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asdtech
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151510
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psych 301
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2012-05-02 14:21:39
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E Cooper
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  1. Natuarlistic observation
    A research method where the researcher will observe the subjects without modifying anything
  2. Correlational Approach
    The correlational research attempts to determine whether and to what degree, a relationship exists between two or more quantifiable (numerical) variables.
  3. Independent Variable
    The variable being directly manipulated by the researcher
  4. Dependent Variable
    The variable that is being studied by the researcher, may or may not be influenced by the IV
  5. Between Subjects Design
    An experimental design in which each subjects is randomly assigned to only one of the treatment conditions
  6. Within Subjects Design
    An experimental design where all subjects receive all treatment conditions. Also called a repeated measures design
  7. Type 1 Error
    This happens when you reject the Null Hypothesis even if it is true.
  8. Type 2 error
    A Type II Error is also known as a False Negative or Beta Error. This happens when you accept the Null Hypothesis when you should in fact reject it.
  9. Confound
    A neiscance variable that effects the DV and differs reliably with the IV
  10. Factorial Design
    Experimental designs in which two or more independent variables are used. This permits the analysis of interactions between variables.
  11. Interaction
    Occurs when the effect of an IV on the DV differ reliably with the levels of a second IV
  12. Nuisance Variables
    any variable other than the IV that affects the DV
  13. Floor and Ceiling Effects
    • Floor - The values of the DV are so low they are not affected by the IV
    • Ceiling - The values of the DV are so high they are not affected by the IV
  14. Main effect
    The effect of the change in level of one factor in a factorial experiment measured independently of other variables.
  15. Response Acquiescence Effect
    The tendency of an interviewee to agree with the questioner.
  16. Random & Fixed factors
    • Random - An IV whose levels were chosen randomly from a population of possible values
    • Fixed - An IV whose levels were chosen non-randomly
  17. Hypothesis
    A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.
  18. Theory
    A supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something
  19. Modus Ponens
    • If P then Q
    • P
    • Therefore Q
  20. Modus Tollens
    • If P then Q
    • Not Q
    • Therefore not P
  21. Affirming the Consequent
    Using Modeus Ponens backwards (If P then Q, Q, There for P) this form of logic is invalid, based upon this example

    • If Bill Gates owns Fort Knox, then he is rich
    • Bill Gates is rich.
    • Therefore, Bill Gates owns Fort Knox.
  22. Levels of the independent variable
    values (amounts) of the treatment variable
  23. Advantage of the experimental approach
    • 1. Causation can be implied
    • 2. Precise control of variables
    • 3. Experiments can be replicated
    • 4. Experiment yields quantitative data
  24. Properties of scales of measurement
    • 1.Identity Property
    • Occurs when different entities receive different scales

    • 2.Magnitude Property
    • Occurs when the ordering of values on the scale reflects the ordering of the trait being measured

    • 3.Equal intervals
    • Occurs when a difference of 1 on the scale represents the same amount of the trait being measured everywhere on the scale (e.g. weight in pounds)

    • 4.Absolute Zero
    • Occurs when a score of 0 indicates a complete absence of the trait being measured
  25. 4 Types of scales
    • Nominal - Identity property
    • Ordinal - Identity, Magnitude
    • Interval - Identity, magnitude, equal intervals
    • Ratio - Identity, magintude, equal inverval, absolute zero
  26. Random Selection
    Random Selection is a process of gathering (in a truly random way) a representative sample for a particular study
  27. Random assignment
    Every subject selected has an equal chance of experiencing each level of the IV
  28. Quasi-experiment
    A study that matches an experimental design in every way except it does not have random assignment
  29. Frequency Distribution
    A breakdown of how all the scores fell into a set of set ranges (grade distribution)
  30. Normal distribution
    A function that represents the distribution of many random variables as a symmetrical bell-shaped graph.
  31. Positively & Negatively skewed distributions
    • Positive - curve towards right
    • Negative - curve towards left
  32. Formula for SS
  33. Practice effects
    Occurs when the subject's score is influenced by performing a task over and over again
  34. Sensitization effects
    Sensitization effects occur when the subject is aware of the manipulations used in a study and such awareness causes him/her to change his/her behavior
  35. Carry-over effects
    results from the previous phase carry-over into the next phase
  36. Counter-balancing
    the systematic variation of the order of presentation of the levels of the independent variable, used to negate practice & carry over effects
  37. Function of a latin square
    Used to plan IV exposure of within subjects design & counter-act practice and carry-over effects
  38. Internal Validity
    How well does something measure what it is intended to measure
  39. level & level
    • level - the chance that one commits a type 1 error
    • level - the chance of committing a type 2 error
  40. Definition of Statistical power
    The power of a statistical test is the probability that the test will reject a false null hypothesis
  41. Proving the null hypothesis
    Can't be done, you can only disprove it
  42. Regression to the mean
    Upon retesting extreme scores will migrate towards the mean
  43. How the logic of experiments is ruined by confounds
    Experiments assume that only the IV can have any effect on the DV and that everything is completely random, however if another variable (confound) has a direct and non-random effect on the DV then one of the base assumptions of an experiment becomes flawed and the experiment fails
  44. External validity
    How generalizable the results of an experiment are in the real world
  45. Demand characteristics
    Cues in the experiment that make the participants aware of what the experimenter expects from them
  46. Rosenthal Effect
    When the subject's performance changes due to subtle changes in the experimenter or their behaviors
  47. Placebo Effect
    Any effect that seems to be a consequence of administering a placebo, which is a fake treatment or inactive substance
  48. Way to overcome placebo effect & rosenthal effect
    Run a double blind study
  49. Hawthorne Effect
    The alteration of behavior by the subjects of a study because they are being observed.
  50. Novelty Effect
    Occurs when the DV is affected by the IV, not because of any inherent qualities of the IV but rather because the IV is something new
  51. Participant observation
    A type of research design where the researcher will embed themselves in a group to study them
  52. MStreat, MSwithin
    Estimate the amount of variance across groups
  53. Time series design
    A design where data is collected at intervals over a certain period of time
  54. Correlation co-efficient
    A number between −1 and +1 calculated so as to represent the linear dependence of two variables or sets of data.
  55. Proportion of variance accounted for
    r2
  56. Parametric statistical tests
    Statistical tests where certain assumptions about the parameters of the full population of the sample are taken.
  57. Survey Research
    A research method which uses convienence spampling & paper based questionairres. No randomization however easy way to collect large amounts of data
  58. Convenience sampling
    A sample where participants are selected at the convenience of the researcher
  59. Quota Sampling
    A convenience sample with an effort to make sure a certain distribution of demographic selections are made
  60. Simple random sampling
    A completely random subset of people chosen from a larger population
  61. Stratified random sampling
    Occurs when a population is first divided into subsets based on some criterion then random sampling occurs within those subsets.
  62. Multistage sampling
    basically stratified sampling where at each level of stratification there is random sampling.
  63. Parts of a manuscript
    • Title page
    • Abstract
    • Method Section
    • Results
    • Discussions
  64. In press
    An article that has been accepted for publication but has not been published yet
  65. Gallery Proofs
    A typeset copy of the article that is sent to the author for final approval
  66. How are the Nuremberg code of ethics different from the APA code
    The APA code of ethics allows for certain forms of deception to occur to be applied to research subjects
  67. Factors determining statistical power
    • Alpha level
    • Sample size
    • Effect size
    • One tailed vs Two tailed
    • Variance
  68. Why do an ANOVA instead of multiple t-tests (2)
    • 1. Less paperwork
    • 2. Multiple t-tests inflate the type 1 error rate
  69. Why can't you imply causation from correlations?
    • 1.You don't know the direction of the causal relationship
    • 2. You don't know the effects of other variables which are not controlled for
  70. Advantages of non-parametric studies
    • 1. Less restrictive assumptions
    • 2. Often easier to calculate than parametric studies
  71. Disadvantages of non-parametric studies
    • 1. Tend to be overly conservative
    • 2. Some research designs do not have a non-parametric test (factorial designs)
  72. Factors to consider when evaluating surveys
    • Bias in choosing sample
    • Lack of full disclosure when reporting results
    • Lying by poll respondents
    • Non-respondents influencing the sample
    • Characteristics of the poll taker
    • Type of questions asked (open vs closed questions)
  73. Problems with single subject experiment designs
    • 1. Likely to have type 1 & 2 errors
    • 2. Placebo effects are likely
    • 3. Experimenter bias is a problem
    • 4. Generalization difficulties
  74. Ethical principles to be considered when conducting psychological research
    • Subjects should agree to participate in research
    • Subjects should not be coerced
    • Subjects should be fully informed about the purpose of the experiment before deciding to participate
    • Subject data should be confidential
    • Subjects should be warned of any harmful effects of the study

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