The goal is to put the nonbreaching party where she would have been had the promise been performed so far as money can do that.
EXPECTATION DAMAGES: in most cases, standard measure of damages will be based on an expectation measure, ie, sufficient damages to allow her to buy a substitute performance.
RELIANCE DAMAGES: if plaintiff's expectation damages are too speculative to measure, the plaintiff may elect to recover based on a reliance measure; reliance damages award the plaintiff the cost of her performance, ie, they are designed to put plaintiff in the position she would have been in had the contract never been formed.
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES: consist of losses resulting from the breach that any reasonable person would have foreseen at the time time of entry into the contract; plaintiff must show that both parties were aware of the special circumstances that existed a the time of formation, which would involve a substantial amount of risk and resulting damage if the contract were to be breached; note that in sales of goods, only buyer can recover consequential damages.
INCIDENTAL DAMAGES: in contracts for sales of goods, compensatory damages may also include incidental damages which include expenses reasonably incurred by the buyer in inspection, receipt, transportation, care, and custody of the goods rightfully rejected and other expenses reasonably incident to the seller's breach, and by the seller in storing, shipping, returning, and reselling the goods as a result of the buyer's breach.